شرح ممتاز لكتابة البراجراف

إرسال موضوع جديد   إرسال مساهمة في موضوع

صفحة 1 من اصل 6 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6  الصفحة التالية

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

12032012

مُساهمة 

modars1 شرح ممتاز لكتابة البراجراف






كتابة البراجراف
يطلب منك في الامتحان كتابة موضوع من100 كلمة _ حوالي 15 سطر - باستخدام الكلمات المساعدة أو الأفكار المعطاة ولكتابة موضوع صحيح اتبع الآتي :
قراءة أفكار الموضوع وترجمتها بدقة ومحاولة تكوين فكرة بالعربية قبل كتابتها بالإنجليزية .
إذا كان الموضوع حدث سواء تاريخي أو اجتماعي أو حادثة يمكنك افتتاح الموضوع بهذه المقدمة ولا مانع من كتابتها .
عند تكوين جمل الموضوع والبدء في كتابة الجمل تأكد أن كل جملة مما تكتب تحتوي على ( فاعل – فعل – مفعول – مكملة ) وتكون المكملة عادة ظرف مكان أو زمان .
راعِ عدم الإطالة في الجملة أكثر من اللازم .
يجب مراعاة زمن الفعل بحيث يتلائم مع الموضوع وإذا كان الموضوع عام تكون الأفعال في المضارع وإذا كانت قصة أو حدث ماضي تكون الأفعال في الماضي .
يجب العناية بعلامات الترقيم أهمها استعمال حرف كبير في أول حرف في الجملة ووضع ( نقطة ) في نهاية الجملة .
J كيف تتعامل مع هذا السؤال؟
¬ كتابة عنوان الموضوع في وسط السطر.
­ ترك مسافة 2سم في بداية السطر الأول فقط.
® مراعاة علامات الترقيم : تبدأ الجملة بـ (Capital letter) وتنتهي بنقطة(full stop).
¯ تنسيق الخط وعدم الكشط أو الشطب, ولذلك ينصح بعمل مسودة للموضوع قبل الكتابة.
° تناسب زمن الجملة مع سياق الموضوع ومراعاة الأخطاء الهجائية(Spelling mistakes) .
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خطوات كتابة موضوع الإنشاء
¬ قراءة السؤال جيداً وتحديد عنوان الموضوع , ثم محاولة صياغة جملة مقدمة تناسب الموضوع.
­ عمل مسودة لكتابة : الكلمات والعبارات والجمل المتعلقة بالموضوع.
® محاولة صياغة جمل صحيحة البناء والمعنى من هذه الكلمات ( صياغتها في ذهنك أولاً)
¯ قراءة الجمل التي كتبتها ومراجعتها, مراجعة دقيقة لترابط الأفكار, و كتابته في المكان الم
Ex :
No one can deny that ……… plays an important role in our life.
It's a credit of source for me to be given this lovely chance to talk about one of the most interesting subjects and express my deep feelings towards it.
We can safely say that …….. has a great impact on our life .
It is taken for granted that ……
There is no doubt that ……… is one of the most difficult problems facing developing countries
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بعد المقدمة نبدأ في عرض أفكار الموضوع وذلك بالحديث عن الاسباب أو الشروط أو الانواع أو الخلفية التاريخية أو الحديث عن المكان أو الزمان ..........



1- للكتابة عن المزايا أو العيوب :
1 Concerning advantages :-
a) One advantage of ………is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة
b) Another advantage of ….. is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة
c) As well as that ………….
d) The good thing about …… is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة

2- Concerning disadvantages :

a) One disadvantage of …….. is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة
b) Another disadvantage of ….. is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة
c) As well as that ………….
d) The bad thing about …… is to + مصدر / is that+ جملة
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2- للكتابة عن قضية أو مشكلة :
1- تعريف المشكلة ( اذا أمكن ذلك ) باستخدام :
- This problem can be defined as ……….
2- نذكر اسباب المشكلة باستخدام :
This problem is due to the fact that …………
3- نذكر الحلول المقترحة لحل المشكلة باستخدام :
- To solve or put an end to this problem, we should ….
- Here's another idea ……….
- We should get blood out of a stone to ………..
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3- للكتابة عن موضوع ايجابي :
1- نذكر اهمية ما نكتب عنه أو فوائده .
2- نذكر كيفية تنمية هذا الشئ او تطويره أو تحديثه .
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في نهاية البراجراف نذكر ما يؤكد ما كنا نتحدث عنه و يمكن استخدام :-

1- In a nutshell, / to sum up,


2- In short = In brief = briefly = In a word

3- Last but not least,
4- At last = lastly = finally = eventually
5- From my point of view = in my opinion
6- Finally, I'd like to say that ….
7- We can come to the conclusion that ………
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1- In fact / As a matter of fact .
2- …… plays an important part in our life .
3- It's a double edged weapon .
4- It's a mixed blessing .
5- …… has a lot of advantages and disadvantages .
6- It 's the backbone of …….
7- It's the lifeblood of …… ( industry / agriculture / commerce …)

8- We can't do without ……….
9- By hook or by crock = By all possible means .
10- In the field of ….
( education / medicine / tourism …. )
11- sooner or later
12- We should …..
- do our best
- wage war upon
- start campaign against
- make great efforts
13- We should fight for ……
( freedom / independence / a better future …)
14- Our duty is to ….
- spread health awareness
- learn foreign language
- raise the standard of living
- reclaim the desert
-eliminate illiteracy
- make full use of
- pave the way for
15- We should put an end to
( violence – terrorism – extremism – pollution – racial discrimination – fanaticism – the problem of unemployment …..)
16- It's important to note that ………..
17 – We have to take into account that ……….
18- It's worth saying that ……….
19- Generally speaking , …. = by and large
20 – There is no doubt that …………..
21- In the course of the last years ,
22- practical steps have been taken
23- all over the world
24- thanks to science and technology
25- …….had been one of man's dreams
26 - Great progress will be made in the field of ………
27- with the help of …….. we can lead a happy and comfortable life .
28- for the good of society .
29- to get foreign currency
30- ….. helps us to keep in touch with…..
31- Can you imagine life in the absence of ……..?
32- In fact, it's impossible to lead a happy life without ……
33- The youth have to respond to ………

34- we look forward to the time when peace prevails

35- ……. is one of the chief sources of wealth
36- they should be ready to sacrifice their lives .
37-It plays an essential role in our life .
38- It goes without saying that a country doesn't achieve development or program without depending on ……. (Science – culture – knowledge – modern invention)
39 – The outlook to the future mustn't be gloomy or dark. We hope it will be secure and promising
40- Indeed, nothing is more important, useful, interesting than …..

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1- لبيان التأكيد :

Certainly- in fact – actually –as a matter of fact
2- لبيان الاضافة :
Moreover – furthermore – in addition to that
3- لبيان التناقض :
On the contrary – contrary to this – however – although- nevertheless
4- لبيان المقارنة :
In like manner وبنفس الاسلوب - in the same way – similarly – likewise – correspondingly علي نفس المنوال
5- لتقديم الامثلة :
For example – for instance – such as – like .
6-لتقديم النتيجة :
As a result – consequently – therefore – accordingly
7- لتقديم الرأي :
In my opinion – to my mind – I think that – I believe that – we are strongly in favour of – we are against – we are opposed to
O لاحظ التعبيرات التالية :
1- spare no effort to 2- make great efforts to
3- severe shortage 4 - Fruitful results
5- on a large scale 6- serious problem
7- hold back progress 8- a major setback / obstacle
9- relieve pressure on 10- a large sector of
11- waste time 12- drug addiction
13- vital subject 14- needless to say that …
15 – It's doubtless that all of us owe much to ..



أولاً:- إذا كان الموضوع عن شئ هام أو مفيد لنا أو فى حياتنا

It's a worldwide fact that اسم الموضوع is so important and can play a vital role in our life as individuals on one hand and change the shape of life all over the world as a whole on the other hand. First of all, it has a lot of good effects and advantages which if well-exploited إذا ما أحسن استغلالها , will change and modify our life completely to the best so we should do our best to develop it by all possible means. In my opinion, it's the golden key to a happy life full of peace and success. If it has any bad effects or disadvantages, they will be of no importance, if outweighed by إذا ما قورنت بـ its marvelous merits and benefits.
Out of its great importance, I think that we can't do without it whatever the drawbacks it may cause. Above all, it helps in the progress and prosperity to any person or nation. Realizing the importance of it, the government hasn't forgotten its role and spares no effort to help spread it everywhere. As a student, I believe that if the government and the individuals put their hands together and share the responsibilities, we'll actually reap نحصد fruitful harvest now or in the near future. To sum up, اسم الموضوع can help us live happily and peacefully and build up a new society void خالى of any defects.
ثانياًً:- إذا كان الموضوع عن شئ هدام أو غير مفيد لنا أو فى حياتنا
No one can deny that اسم الموضوع is so serious and dangerous. It can turn our life upside down and make it unbearable لا تحتمل. First of all, it has a lot of bad effects and disadvantages, which we can't count, on the individuals and the whole society, so we must do our best to put an end to it very soon. In my opinion, it has spread widely among us, so we should put our hands with the government to try to find immediate and urgent solutions before its disastrous effects and results aggravate تتفاقم.
Important still علاوة على ذلك , we must take into consideration that it's one of the worst problems ever faced and may easily lead to other grave خطيرة problems. Let's now ask ourselves how this bad phenomenon ظاهرة has come to take its place and imposed فرضت itself in front of us. I think it doesn't help any person or society to make any progress or advance. To sum up, اسم الموضوع can't help us live happily or peacefully in a society void of any defects.
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عند كتابة paragraph عن شخصية تعجب بها :
اسم الشخص
The person who I admire very much is ………... I admire him, because he / she achieved his / her goal in the field of...مجال عمله……….... He / she does his / her goal. جملتان من الأفكار
This person affects me greatly and formed my character and my point of view, so I respect him and thank him greatly………………………… جملتان من الأفكار
In short, we can’t ignore or forget those who have affected us and formed our views and ideas in life.
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مقدمة للموضعات النافعة والضارة:-
This topic makes our brain reel because of its importance and effectiveness on our daily life.
لقد اجذب واذهل هذا الموضوع عقولنا بسبب اهميتة وتاثيرة على حياتنا اليومية.
هذة الجمل تكتب واحدة تلو الاخرى للموضوعات الضارة شاملة علامات الترقيم.
There is no doubt that……….. Is/are harmful and dangerous.
مما لا شك فية ان ...........ضار وخطير.
The fact that … is/are very harmful because it/they lead/leads to poverty and unhappiness of man.
فى حقيقة الامر ان ...........ضار ويؤدى الى فقر وتعاسة الانسان.
Sometimes …is/are the most important factor in destroying the desired goal.
احيانا يلعب.........دور هام فى ابادة الهدف المنشود.
Conclusion
هذة الخاتمة للموضوعات الضارة فقط:-
In short …have/has a bad effect on our daily life, so let us hope the situation has indeed changed, and the future will be better.
باختصار,......... لة اثار سلبية على حياتنا اليومية, لذا دعنا نامل ان يتغير الوضع ويصبح المستقبل اكثر اشراقا.
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Useful subjects..
In fact ….plays/play an essential part in the life of everyone.
فى الحقيقة....... يلعب دور اساسى فى حياة كل فرد.


No one can deny that ,…. …… is/are very important because it/they leads/lead to welfare and happiness of man.

لا يستطيع احد ان ينكر ان .......... يؤدى الى رفاهية وسعادة الانسان.
Sometimes… Is/are the most important factor in achieving a desired goal.
احيانا يكون ....عامل اساسى فى تحقيق الهدف النشود.
……..is/are the turning point in our life/human history because it/they is/are among humanity's greatest achievement in the 21st
Century.
I believe that the 21st Century will be known as the century of…………. .
Conclusion
All in all, ……..has/have a great effect on our life, so I realize that all I can do is to write these lines to support it/them because we can't do without it.
هيكل كامل للموضوعات الايجابية:
هيكل كامل لموضوع تعبير ذو أضرار :
موضوع مفيد
It is taken for granted that ................plays a very important role in our life nowadays
On the one hand, it helps us in our work, education and even in public life . On the other hand , it enables us to enjoy our life . Moreover, it protects us against the current problems of the world . It is the role of mass media and people in charge to spread the awareness among people to take interest in .....................Unless we take
interest in ...............,we may face a lot of troubles and will lag behind the world
progress .
To sum up , I can say that everyone should take interest in .............
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موضوع ضار
It is taken for granted that................ is very dangerous. It causes a lot of diseases .
It affects the environment badly . It may result in serious problems . It holds our progress back . This problem is caused by ................ and ............... it is the role of
individuals , schools and mass media to spread the awareness among people to avoid ........................ Unless we avoid this problem we may suffer a lot and may spoil our life .
To sum up , I can say that every one should does his best to eliminate this problem ,
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موضوعات اجابية وسلبية
There is no doubt that …….plays an effective role in our life . We should Know that this ( helps / hinders) our progress and development .The government does its best to(encourage /discourage ) this by all possible means. On the other hand it is considered an important step to improve and develop our society. Mass media should have a role to play . Mass media should culture people well in this field . People should co operate with the government. From my point of view , we can say that we should do our best to benefit from (او avoid ) it by all possible means and this can be done by several ways . Briefly, and as it was mentioned before ,we can say that if we follow these suggestions ,we will lead a better life . Thus we must do our best to see our loving country Egypt live in happiness and prosperity.
ليس هناك شك في ذلك....... يلعب دورا فعالا في حياتنا. علينا أن نعلم أن هذا (يساعد
يعوق) التقدم الذي أحرزناه والتنمية ، والحكومة تبذل قصارى جهدها ل(تشجيع / تثبيط) هذ
ا بكل الوسائل الممكنة. من ناحية أخرى فإنه يعتبر خطوة هامة لتحسين وتطوير مجتمعنا.
وينبغي أن وسائل الإعلام لها دور تؤديه. وسائل الإعلام على الناس ثقافة جيدة في هذا المجال
. يجب على الناس العمل المشترك مع الحكومة. من وجهة نظري ، يمكننا أن نقول إن علينا أن نبذل قصارى جهدنا للاستفادة من (او تجنب) بكل الوسائل الممكنة ، ويمكن القيام بذلك عن طريق عدة طرق. باختصار ، وكما ذكر من قبل ، يمكننا أن نقول أنه إذا اتبعنا هذه الاقتراحات ، ونحن سوف يؤدي إلى حياة أفضل. وبالتالي يجب علينا أن نبذل قصارى جهدنا لنرىبلدنا الحبيبة مصر يعيش في السعادة والرخاء.
* هيكل الموضوع " ايجابي "
At the beginning that we can't ignore that ………. play an important role in our life, so we must do our best to develop it …………. جملة من الأفكار
..اسم الموضوع …. has a good effect not only on us, but also on our society. ………جملة من الأفكار……… . Today all Egyptians should shareيشارك fully in society to develop it through this matter.
In addition to that ……………… is considered يعتبرone of the most important matter which deservesيستحق to write about it…………………………………………جملة من الأفكار………. .
We must ask ourselves this question “why is this matter important?” this matter is important because ………جملة من الأفكار…………. . As a result of all that all that factorsعوامل. It is clearواضح that this matter play a vital role in the life of man and society. Thus, we should care for this matter.
ب- الوضع السلبي " أي شيء يعير مشكلة للناس والمجتمع " ومنها :
Smoking - over population - traffic jam
The disadvantage of …………. over population - pollution - shortage of food - housing problem - unemployment - money is the root of all evil - war - rise in prices.
هيكل لموضوع " سلبي "
At the beginning we can't ignore that ………. is the most dangerous and serious problem, so we must do our best to solve it …….
..اسم الموضوع …. has a bad effect not only on us, but also on our society. ………………جملة من الأفكار…………………… . Today all Egyptians should share fully society to solve it through this matter .
In addition to that ……………… is considered one of the most important matter which deserves to write about it.
……………………………جملة من الأفكار…………………. .
We must ask ourselves this question "why is this matter very important? " this matter is dangerous because ………جملة من الأفكار …………. . As a result of all that all that factors. It is clear that this matter is very dangerous in the life of man and society. Thus, we should care for this problem.
موضوع له مزايا وعيوب
(Money-Having a car -T.V-Travelling abroad-Means of transportوسائل النقل……)
At present, there is no doubt that……………plays an increasingly indispensable role in life. We are all aware that, like everything else,……………has both favorable and unfavorable aspectsجوانب. Generally speaking, the advantages can be listed as follows. First of all, ………… makes people’s everyday life more convenient. In addition, ……..… connects its users with the outside world. Most importantly, with a…………., people’s life will be greatly enriched.
Nevertheless, it is a pity that every medal has two sides and the disadvantages of ……….can’t be ignored. To begin with, there will be a danger of spending too much time on it therefore ignoring what you should concentrate on. Worst of all, ………..may plunge you into an unexpected trouble.
As is known to all, …………….. is neither good nor bad itself. Its effects on people depends, to a large extent, on how……….is used. Now that the disadvantages have been put out, they will be paid attention to and eliminated to some degree.
هيكل كامل لموضوع تعبير إيجابى:
There is no doubt that ……الموضوع….plays an important Part in our daily life .يلعب دورا هاما في حياتنا because it has a lot of advantages مزايا which we can not count but we can mention نذكر some of it. First of all: it solves a lot of problems which face us in our life. it is considered The golden key to the happy life يعتبر المفتاح الذهبي للحياة السعيدة , it is the base of our progress in all aspects انه الركيزة الأساسية للتقدم في كافة المجالات , it can help us to build our society يمكن أن تساعدنا في بناء مجتمعنا Above all علاوة على ذلك , it's considered the backbone العمود الفقرى of any civilized country so we must encourage and support it. In other words we have to work together to improve and develop it
Finally; we can come to the end of this topic that we can not imagine life in the absence of فى غياب…….

هيكل كامل لموضوع تعبير ذو أضرار :
There is no doubt that
……. is the most serious problems that faces us now .because It has bad effects and disadvantages that we can't count it, first of all it causes more and more troubles and obstacles in our life .it may spread deviation and crimes in our society. It is considered as a hateful enemy that destroys our society so we should stand as one man لذا يجب أن نقف كرجل واحد to put an end to this bad phenomenonالظاهرة السيئة which has spread seriously التي تتفشى بخطورة in the recent days .
finally, we can come to the end of this topic that this problem is as bad as bad could beسئ بما تحمله كلمه سئ من معنى and we should get rid of itنتخلص in order to live in happiness.

2 - Writing letters :كتابة الخطابات
۞ خطوات كتابة الخطاب :
1- العنوان : يكتب في أعلي الصفحة علي اليمين و يتكون من :
أ – رقم المنزل واسم الشارع
ب- اسم الحي ( إن وجد )
ج- اسم المدينة
د – نكتب (Egypt) إذا كان الخطاب خارج مصر
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2-- التاريخ : يكتب أسفل العنوان بالشكل التالي :
5th May 2010 أو May 5, 2010


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3 - نبدأ من اليسار بكلمة (Dear) ثم اسم المرسل إليه الخطاب اذا كان الخطاب الي صديق مثل
Dear Ali / Dear Friend
اذا كان الخطاب الي قريب نذكر نوع القرابة :
Dear father / Dear uncle
اذا كان الخطاب الي رئيسك في العمل او شخص اكبر في السن او الدرجة نستخدم :
Dear Sir / Dear teacher / Dear Mr. / Dear Dr
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4- مقدمة الخطاب :
1 - اذا كان الخطاب مرسل منك للمرة الاولي نكتب إحدي المقدمات التالية :
1- I'm very glad to write this letter to you .I hope everything is going well.
2- I'm very pleased to write to you.
3- It's really a pleasure to write to you.
4-Forgive me for not writing earlier. I'd like to comfort you that I'm fine.
5- It was a long time since I heard from you. I hope that you and your family are quite well.
2- اذا كان الخطاب مرسل منك ردا علي خطاب نستخدم احدي المقدمات التالية :
1-I've just received your letter and I feel happy to write back .
2- It was thoughtful of you to send me that nice letter . I hope everything is going well with you .
3- Thank you very much for your letter .
4- How nice it was to hear from you .
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5- نكتب الموضوع : علي حسب الموضوع( دعوة / شكر / تهنئة / مواساة .....)
ويمكن تقديم موضوع الخطاب بإحدي المقدمات التالية :
1- I'm sending this letter hoping that …………
2- I'd like to tell you that ………
3- Will you be kind enough to tell me about ………?
4- I'd like to offer you my hearty congratulations on ……..
5- As for the content of your letter , I'd like to tell you that ……
6- Regarding the information you required , I can tell you that …

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6- نكتب الخاتمة :
1- I look forward to seeing you in due course. Best wishes .
2- I wish you the best of everything in life .
3- I hope to hear from you soon .
4- I'm eagerly waiting for your reply .
ثم نكتب :
- Yours,
- Yours sincerely,
- Faithfully yours,
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شرح ممتاز لكتابة البراجراف :: تعاليق

مُساهمة في 13.03.12 8:05 من طرف مس رباب

جزاك الله خيرا وشكرا جزيلا على الاعمال الجميلة

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 13.03.12 8:11 من طرف مس رباب

اهم الاخطاء الشائعة فى كتابة البراجراف مع شرح خطوات كتابته وامثلة لها

http://www.mediafire.com/?e75p56d667r87oo

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 13.03.12 15:17 من طرف الاستاذ وسام

جزاك الله خيرا وشكرا لك على الاعمال الممتازة جعلها الله فى ميزان اعمالك

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 14.03.12 9:09 من طرف حورية المتوسط

جزاك الله خيرا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

صفحة 1 من اصل 6 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6  الصفحة التالية

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