صفحة 1 من اصل 1 • شاطر •
مرجعات ليله الأمتحانUnit10انجلش 2ث
fertile خصب genetically modified معدل وراثيا
organic عضوي inorganic غير عضوي
pesticide مبيد آفات spray يرش
gene جين genetic engineering الهندسة الوراثية
ingredients مكونات ripen ينضج
rot يتعفن seeds بذور
starvation مجاعة / الموت جوعا agriculture الزراعة
fertilizer سماد starve يموت جوعا
modify يعدل modification تعديل
rotten متعفن carbohydrate الكربوهيدرات
fat دهن protein البروتين
amount = quantity كمية genetic structure التركيب الوراثي
organic farming الزراعة العضوية farm (v./n.) يزرع / مزرعة
soil التربة improve يحسن / يتحسن
quality نوعية / جودة production الإنتاج
consumption الاستهلاك hunter صياد
nuts الجوز roots الجذور
collect يجمع later فيما بعد
method طريقة wild plants نباتات برية
notice يلاحظ living things الكائنات الحية
contain يحتوي علي laboratory معمل
insect حشرة destroy يدمر / يتلف
damage ضرر/تلف/يضر/يتلف normal عادي
do damage يسبب تلف modern science العلم الحديث
crops المحاصيل attack يهاجم / هجوم
healthy food طعام صحي frequently غالبا
global warming الاحتباس الحراري vitamins الفيتامينات
nutrition التغذية nutritious مغذي
nourishment الغذاء malnutrition سوء التغذية
meat اللحم cheese الجبن
butter الزبد bread الخبز
pasta العجائن (كأنواع المكرونة) fruit الفاكهة
vegetables الخضروات disease resistant مقاوم للأمراض
salt الملح market السوق
high yield seeds بذور عالية الإنتاجية high yield crops محاصيل عالية الإنتاجية
preservation حفظ cultivation الزراعة
irrigation الري desertification التصحـر
dental decay تسوس الأسنان flavour نكهة
poison سم structure تركيب
decay يتحلل / يتعفن cell خلية
guarantee يضمن type=sort=kind نوع
potential احتمال تطور scientific experiments التجارب العلمية
supply يمد / يزود add يضيف
addition إضافة additive مادة مضافة
suppose يفترض modernize يُحدث / يجدد
food shortage نقص الغذاء desert reclamation استصلاح الصحراء
cut down يقلل concern يخص / يهم
ranch مزرعة كبيرة food poisoning تسمم غذائي
country borders حدود الدول digest يهضم
digestion الهضم indigestion عسر الهضم
swallow يبتلع breathe يتنفس
breath النفس over time بمرور الوقت
remove يزيل stream مجري ماء / يتدفق / يسيل
dietician أخصائي تغذية genetic modification تعديل وراثي
diet نظام خاص للتغذية
Words and their antonyms:
fertile خصب infertile غير خصب
organic عضوي inorganic غير عضوي
natural طبيعي unnatural غير طبيعي
pros مزايا cons عيوب
merits مزايا demerits عيوب
pro مؤيد anti معارض
responsible مسئول irresponsible غير مسئول
healthy صحي unhealthy غير صحي
successful ناجح unsuccessful غير ناجح
agreement اتفاق disagreement اختلاف
attractive جذاب unattractive غير جذاب
spray with يرش باستخدام (مادة معينة) harmful to ضار لـ
poisonous for سام لـ express opinion on/about يعبر عن رأي في
be concerned to+inf. مهتم بـ be concerned with+n. مهتم بـ
smile at يبتسم لـ lie to يكذب علي
put genes into plants يضع جينات في النباتات bring down يقلل
come round يزور resistant to مقاوم لـ
life on earth الحياة علي الأرض lead to يؤدي إلي
experiment on/with يجري تجربة علي rich in غني بـ
hold/held/held يمسك lay/laid/laid يضع
hurt/hurt/hurt يصيب بأذى lead/led/led يقود
keep/kept/kept يحفظ lean/leant/leant
kneel/kneeled/kneeled يركع leap/leapt/leapt
know/knew/known يعرف leave/left/left يترك
verb noun adj. adv.
rot يتعفن rotting تعفن rotten متعفن
modify يعدل modification تعديل modified معدل
genetics علم الوراثة genetic وراثي genetically وراثيا
ripen ينضج ripe ناضج
starve يموت جوعا starvation الموت جوعا starving
يعاني من الجوع الشديد
fertilize يسمد fertilizer سماد fertilized
مضاف له سماد
Important Vocabulary for translation and composition:
swine flu (H1N1) أنفلونزا الخنازير vaccine مصل
epidemic وباء the backbone العمود الفقري
digestive system الجهاز الهضمي respiratory system الجهاز التنفسي
circulatory system الجهاز الدوري nervous system الجهاز العصبي
skeleton هيكل عظمي intensive care العناية المركزة
sample عينة complications مضاعفات / تعقيدات
gland غدة fever الحمي
¨الفعل make يأتي بعده المصدر بدون to في المبني للمعلوم:
¨Make + inf. (active)يجبر / يلزم
· They made him pay the money.
¨وفي المبني للمجهول يأتي بعد make المصدر + to:
· He was made to pay the money.
¨Once = at some time in the past في وقت ما في الماضي / ذات مرة
¨Once = as soon as بمجرد أن
¨Once = one time مرة واحدة
· Once, people were hunters. Their food came from animals. في وقت ما في الماضي
· Once I get the news, I'll phone you. بمجرد أن
· She visits her grandparents once every six months. مرة واحدة
¨So = very
· I enjoyed the film very much / so much.
¨Such = very
· He is such a clever boy.
¨هناك adverbs تنتهي بــ ly تستخدم بدلا من very وتعطي معني أقوي للجملة:
Extremely – fantastically – tremendously – greatly – incredibly – unbelievably – awfully – terribly
¨لاحظ أن awfully تستخدم عادة مع : sorry
· The mountain is extremely high.
· He was incredibly rich.
· I am awfully sorry for disturbing you.
¨تستخدم so (بمعنى و كذلك) في الجمل المثبتة لتجنب التكرار وفي هذه الحالة يأتي بعدها الفعل المساعد حسب زمن الجملة ثم الفاعل:
¨So + فعل مساعد + فاعل
· Ali plays tennis. · Ahmed plays tennis.
Ali plays tennis and so does Ahmed.
· She knew the answer. ·They knew the answer.
She knew the answer and so did they.
· Peter can swim. ·John can swim.
Peter can swim and so can John.
¨وفي حالة الجمل المنفية تستخدم neither (بمعنى ولا) بنفس الطريقة:
¨Neither + فعل مساعد + فاعل
· I didn't know the truth. She didn't know the truth.
I didn't know the truth and neither did she.
· He couldn't climb the mountain. They couldn't climb it.
He couldn't climb the mountain and neither could they.
¨Hope / Wish
¨يأتي بعد hope إما مضارع بسيط أو مستقبل:
· I hope he passes / will pass the test.
¨ويمكن أن يأتي بعد hope المصدر + to:
· I hope to win the first prize.
¨نستخدم بعد wish ماضي بسيط للتعبير عن التمني في الحاضر:
· I don't have a camera. I wish I had a camera.
· People throw rubbish in the street.
I wish people didn't throw rubbish in the street.
¨وللتعبير عن التمني في الماضي نستخدم بعد wish زمن الماضي التام:
· I failed the exam.
· I wish I hadn't failed the exam. / I wish I had passed the exam.
¨وللتعبير عن التمني في المستقبل نستخدم بعد wish إما could مع الضمائر I/we أو would مع باقي الضمائر:
· I wish I could see my friends tomorrow.
I wish my friend would come to my party next week.
¨لاحظ استخدام ize لتكوين الفعل من بعض الكلمات:
economy اقتصاد economize computer computerize
criticism نقد criticize familiar مألوف familiarize
generalعام generalize memory ذاكر ة memorize
modern حديث modernize terrorإرهاب terrorize
¨وفي كل الكلمات السابقة يمكن استبدال حرف z بحرف s:
Economize – modernize – terrorize
¨Like مثل / alike متشابه / look like يشبه
¨unlike مختلف عن – علي العكس من
¨لاحظ أن like بمعني مثل تستخدم مع :Verb to be
· She is not like her sister. = She is different from her sister.
· She doesn't like her sister. = She hates her sister.
¨Alike = like each other
¨تستخدم alike بعد الأشياء أو الأشخاص الذين نتحدث عنهم ويسبقها فعل To be:
· He and his brother are alike.
He looks like his brother.
· Unlike his brother, he is very tall.
Exercises on Vocabulary and Language Notes
When fruit or other food (dots – shots – knots – rots), it is too bad to eat.
Scientists can (qualify - modify – clarify – identify) crops by adding or removing certain genes.
People who do not have enough food to eat may die of (starvation – sanitation – determination – nutrition).
If you want to grow vegetables, you have to put (deeds – needs - seeds – reeds) in the ground.
Farmers earn their money from (agriculture – culture – feature – literature).
Look at the planes. They are (praying – playing – spraying – staying) the fields from the air.
Rice is the main (grade – element – substance – ingredient) of tonight's dish.
Some people believe that (volcanic – organic – electronic – titanic) fruit and vegetables are better for you than ones grown with chemical fertilizers.
Some people are worried that genetically- (applied – classified – dried – modified) crops will bring diseases.
Farmers use chemical (hormones – antiseptics – antibiotics – pesticides) to kill insects which attack their crops.
My brother wants to study (gene – genetic – genetics – geneticists) at university.
(Ripened – Rotten – Raw – Medium) fruit usually tastes sweet.
This tomato is (ridden – risen – rotten – molten). I can't eat it.
Scientists have made genetic (qualifications – modifications – classifications – clarifications) to some vegetables.
Many people were very hungry after the storm. Some even began to (swerve – serve – starve – observe).
(Unlike – Alike – Dislike – Look like) his brother, he's very arrogant.
He passed the test and (so – either – neither – nor) did his brother.
I wish the weather (was – were – is – had been) better yesterday.
I'm (incredibly – unbelievably – fantastically – awfully) sorry for not coming on time.
(Once – One – Ones – Twice) I've found somewhere to live I'll send you my address.
Every night before going to bed, I (hope – wish – give – offer) my mother good night.
My brother trained hard for the competition and I (hope – wish – offer – intend) he'll win.
I (thought – wish – intend – hope) the weather improves soon.
I (insist – hope – wish – intend) we could meet next week.
I wish you (can – will – may – would) try listening to me for once.
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences and write it correctly:
This land is infertile. It can produce a large number of good crops.
Carbons provide our bodies with heat and energy.
Protein is an animal which helps us to grow and be healthy.
A leaf is the part of a plant from which a new plant of the same kind can grow.
Millions of people face salutation because they don't have enough to eat.
I hope you good health.
I wish getting a new job soon.
She did the job well and neither did Hala.
He can't use the computer and so can't I.
The mountain is incredibly height.
Who's / whose
¨Who's = who is + n. / v+ing / adj.
¨Who's = who has + PP.
· Leila is the student who's working on this project with me.
· My friend, who is a pilot, has always loved flying.
·The man, who's done a lot of good work, will be given a reward.
¨Whose ضمير وصل يدل علي الملكية
· That is the boy whose sister is a teacher.
· My brother, whose friend is a Libyan engineer, is going to work in Tripoli.
Choose the correct answer:
1- The man (who – whose – who's – that) looking after our garden is too old.
2- The woman (whose – who's – that's – what's) purse was stolen phoned the police.
3- (Whose – What's – Who's – When) going to drive the kids to school?
4- I'm not sure (who – whose – when – who's) coming to their party tonight.
5- The Paul is the one (who – whom – who's – whose) going to make this team something special.
6- I couldn't tell (who – whom – who's – whose) books were left on the table.
7- Paul is the player (who – whom – who's – whose) skills will make this team something special.
8- Ali was unsure (who – whom – who's – whose) office he was meant to go to.
9- "(who – whom – who's – whose) stolen my wallet?"
10- I'd like to know (whose – whom – who's – who) smelly socks these are.
11- The doctor (who – whom – who's – whose) done the operation is very clever.
12- The writer (who – who's – whom – whose) written a lot of novel will get an international award.
13- I'd like to know (who's – whom – whose – when) in charge here.
14- The man (that – whom – who's – whose) house overlooks the river hardly goes out.
15- This is the man (that – who's – whose – what) been looking for you.
Find the mistake and correct it:
The man who's house collapsed during the earthquake was so sad.
The boy whose written the e-mail is my cousin.
The company who's employees went on strike closed down.
This is the man whose works for the computer company.
Nobody saw the thieves who's robbed the gas station.
Expressing Opinions Agreeing with opinions Disagreeing with opinions
As far as I'm concerned, So do I / I do too. I don't./ I don't think so
In my opinion, I agree (with you). I don't agree (with you)
I'd say that .. You are (quite) right I disagree.
It seems to me that .. I think so I'm not sure
I think … I suppose so. Really!
· As far as I'm concerned, the watch is more beautiful than that necklace.
I agree with you.
· In my opinion, we should all do more exercise.
You are quite right.
· I'd say that mountaineering is very dangerous.
I'm not sure.
· It seems to me that Paris is a great city.
I don't think so.
Respond to the following situations:
A friend thinks that sugar and salt are bad for health. What do you say?
Your father believes that countries should try to produce all their own food.
Your sister thinks that many people today eat too much food.
A friend thinks that we should all eat less and do more exercise.
A school friend asks what you think of fast food. What do you say?
Someone asks your opinion about the best places to buy food.
Your mother asks what you think of food cooked at home. What do you say?
Your friend believes that farmers have a very hard life. What do you say?
Your brother thinks that it is dangerous to use a mobile phone while driving. What do you say.
A housewife believes that food prices are going up all the time. What do you say?
Test on Unit 10
1- Respond to the following situations:
One of your friends eats food with too much fat in it. What do you say to him or her?
A friend who has been ill asks for advice about food. Suggest fruit.
A friend thinks biscuits and cakes are healthy foods. What do you say?
Your teacher asks your opinion about using genetic engineering to improve crops. What do you say?
2- Say where these mini-dialogues are taking place and who the speakers are:
1- A-What's the matter?
B- I can't sleep well and I have difficulty going up and down the stairs.
A- Do you smoke?
B- Yes, I smoke about 20 cigarettes a day.
A- That's terrible. Let me examine your chest.
2-A-May I see your ticket, please?
B- Here you are.
A- Seat 20A, the first row.
B- Thank you. What time does the film start?
A: At 6.30.
3- Choose the correct answer:
(Agriculture – Architecture – Acupuncture - Infrastructure) is the work of growing crops and feeding animals.
A/An (academically – alphabetically – genetically - automatically)-modified crop is a type of crop changed by scientists.
To (display – spray – decay – pray) means to make liquid come out in a stream of very small drops.
A/An (fertilizer – organizer – bulldozer – freezer) is a thing which farmers put on soil to help plants to grow.
A (germicide – suicide – herbicide - pesticide) is a chemical which is used to kill insects on crops.
I get my brown hair and eyes from my parents - they're in my (genes – blood – muscles – lungs).
Fruit is ready to eat when it has been (burned - ripened – robbed – stopped) by the sun.
The main (lenient – obedient – client – ingredient) of the meal I am cooking is cheese.
As (long – far – much – soon) as I'm concerned, there are too many cars in modern cities.
Lisa, (who – who's – whose – that) in my class at school, is very good at English.
That's the person (whose – which – who – who's) phone I borrowed when I lost mine.
(As – So – Like – Unlike) far as I am concerned, the match was boring.
She doesn't study hard and (so – neither – either – too) does her brother.
I hope he (is getting – to get – will get – was got) the job he has applied for.
Mount Everest is (credible – incredible – terrible – incredibly) high.
I was made (to sign – signing – sign – signs) the papers.
4- Find the mistake in each of the following sentences and write it correctly:
1- Electrical engineering is the science of changing the structure of the genes of a living thing in order to make it healthier or stronger.
2- Automatic farming does not use chemical fertilizers.
3- Sensation is suffering or death caused by lack of food.
4- I'd talk that the government should make more efforts to solve this problem.
5- The doctor who's clinic is next to the bank is very clever.
6- I hope I am getting my university degree next month.
5- Read the following passage and then answer the questions:
It was once believed that being overweight was healthy, but nowadays few people subscribe to this viewpoint. While many people are fighting the battle to reduce weight, studies are being conducted concerning appetite and how it is controlled by both emotional and biochemical factors. Some of the conclusions of these studies may help to understand how to deal with weight problems. For example, when several hundred people were asked about their eating habits in times of stress, 44% said that they reacted to stressful situations by eating. Further investigation with humans and animals indicated that it is not food that relieves tension but rather the act of chewing.
A test in which subjects were blindfolded showed that obese people have a keener sense of taste and crave more flavorful food than non-obese people. When deprived of the variety and intensity of tastes, these people are not satisfied and consequently eat more to fulfill this need. Blood samples taken from people after they were shown a picture of food revealed that overweight people reacted with an increase in blood insulin, a chemical associated with appetite. This did not happen with average-weight people.
In other experiments, results showed that certain people have a specific biologically induced hunger for carbohydrates. Eating carbohydrates raises the level of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain. Enough serotonin produces a sense of satiation, and hunger for carbohydrates subsides.
Answer the following questions:
1-According to the text, how does a large percentage of people deal with stress?
2-What does the underlined word “this” refer to?
3-Find words in the passage which mean: a) decline b) results
4-Why is overweight no longer thought of as healthy?
Choose the correct answer:
5-In the past, people believed that overweight was------------
a)something good b)something bad c)unhealthy d)undesirable
6-People tend to ------------------in stressful situations.
a)eat less b)stop eating c)eat more d)eat fast
7-Some scientists believe that appetite is influenced by ---------------factors.
a)biographic b)biochemical c)bacterial d)botanical
6- Read the following passage and then answer the questions:
Today, many people use natural ways to cure illnesses that don’t cause side effects. ‘Acupuncture’ and ‘biofeedback’ are two popular methods. Doctors have been using ‘acupuncture’ in China for over two thousand years. It involves pushing needles into the skin at special points around the body. Ancient Chinese philosophers believed that they were connected to different organs and could cure diseases.
Today, ‘acupuncture’ is used in many countries, and studies show that it works especially for headaches, backaches and smoking. Since 1950, doctors in China have also been using ‘acupuncture’ in major operations. Patients are awake and know what is happening in the operation but they feel little or no pain. Scientists think that the needles make the body produce a chemical called ‘endorphin’ that helps to reduce the feeling of pain.
Another natural way to cure illnesses is ‘biofeedback’. It uses a technology to help people control their internal organs. For example, if a person has a problem with sleeping, he/she is connected to a special computer that shows the activity of the brain. The person then is asked to do some mental exercises to relax. When the brain activity falls and the person is relaxed, the computer makes a noise. Slowly, the person learns what type of mental exercise can help him/her to reduce the activity of the brain.
A. Answer the following questions:
Why do many people prefer ‘acupuncture’ and ‘biofeedback’ to cure diseases?
2- How do doctors use ‘acupuncture’ in operations?
‘Biofeedback’ uses technology to help people control their internal organs. Explain.
4-What does the underlined word ‘they’ refer to?
B. Choose the correct answer:
Doctors in China have been using ‘acupuncture’ in operations for ……
a. 50 years b. 54 years c. 55 years d. 52 years
6- Endorphin ………. The feeling of pain.
a. increases b. grows c. decreases d. expands
7- A person who has problems with sleeping is connected to a special computer to………..
a. do written exercises b. show the activity of the brain
c. try to relax d. do mental exercises
8- Write a paragraph of 7 sentences about
The importance of healthy food and exercise
9- A) Translate into Arabic:
The problem of starvation affects many places in the world. the main reason why people are hungry is not that there is food shortage, but that methods of cultivation are not sufficiently advanced in some areas. Moreover, the food is not fairly distributed to all those who need it.
B) Translate into English:
1- تناول الكثير من الملح و الدهون و السكر ضار بالصحة، أليس كذلك؟
2- إن استخدام التكنولوجيا والمعدات الحديثة في الزراعة يساعد علي إنتاج محاصيل أكثر.
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