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النص الاصلي لوحدات المستوى الرفيع الخاص ب 3 ثانوى ازهر

النص الاصلي لوحدات المستوى الرفيع الخاص ب 3 ثانوى ازهر
Unit 2 The Population Explosion      الانفجار السكانى
Three babies born every second.
There are over 3,809 million people in the world today, and the total is increasing at the rate of more than 76 million a year. United Nations experts have calculated that it could be more than 7,000 million by the end of this century.
The population is growing more quickly in some parts of the world than others. The conti¬nents with the fastest growth rates are Latin America (2.9 per cent) and Africa (2.6 per cent). Asia comes third (2.1 per cent) but because its present population is so large, it is there that by far the greatest number of people will be added before the end of the century.
What has caused the population explosion?
The main reason is not so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in public health service and medical care. Many more babies now survive infancy, grow up and become parents, and many more adults are living into old age so that populations are being added to at both ends. In Europe and America the death rate began to fall during the Industrial Revolution. In the developing coun-tries of Africa, Asia and Latin America the fall in death rate did not begin till much later and the birth rate has only recently begun to fall.
The problems facing the developing countries
'The rich get richer and the poor get babies.. .'
This sudden increase in the population of the developing countries has come at a difficult time. Even if their population had not grown so fast they would have been facing a desperate struggle to bring the standard of living of their people up to the point at which there was enough food, housing, education, medical care and employment for everyone to have a reasonable life. The poor countries are having to run faster and faster in their economic activity in order to stay in the same place, and the gap in wealth between rich and poor countries grows wider every year.
Too little food.  
The most pressing problem created by the rapid increase in population is a shortage of food. More mouths have to be fed every year, and yet a high proportion of the existing population are not getting enough of the right kind of food. Over the past two years the total amount of food has decreased, and of course the total amount of food per person has decreased even more sharply.
Too many young people. . .
More and more of the babies born in developing countries have been surviving infancy and now nearly half the people living in those countries are under the age of 15. The adults have to work harder than ever to provide for the needs of the children, who cannot contribute to the economy until they are older. There is a shortage of schools and teachers, and there are not enough hospitals, doctors and nurses. Farming land is becoming scarce, so country people are moving to the towns and cities in the hope of finding a better standard of living. But the cities have not been able to provide housing, and the newcomers live in crowded slums. Finally, there are too few jobs and unemployment leads to further poverty.
• An American in India...
'We moved slowly through the city in a taxi and entered a crowded slum district. The temperature was well over 100° and the air was thick with dust and smoke. The streets seemed alive with people. People eating, people washing, people sleeping. People visiting each other, arguing and screaming. People pushing their hands through the taxi windows, begging. People relieving themselves. People holding on to the sides of buses. People leading animals. People, people, people, people. As we drove slowly through the crowd, sounding the taxi's horn, the dust, heat, noise and cooking fires made it like a scene from Hell. Would we ever get to our hotel? All three of us were, I admit, fright¬ened. Since that night, I've known what over-population feels like.'
Is there a solution?
Statistics show that rapid population growth creates problems for developing countries.  So why don't people have fewer children? Statistics from the developed countries suggest that it is only when people's living standards begin to rise that birth rates begin to fall. There are good reasons for this. Poor countries cannot afford social services and old age pensions, and people's incomes are so low they have nothing to spare for savings. As a result, people look to their children to provide them with security in their old age. Having a large family can be a form of insurance. And even while they are still quite young, children can do a lot of useful jobs on a small farm. So poor people in a developing country will need to see clear signs of much better conditions ahead before they will think of having smaller families. But their conditions cannot be improved unless there is a reduction in the rate at which population is increasing. This will depend on a very much wider acceptance of family planning and this, in turn will mean basic changes in attitudes.
An African woman speaks... Mary is 39, with seven surviving children, and two grandchildren
'To us, children are the most important thing in life. When we marry, it is not above all to get a husband or wife, but to have children. I had my thirteenth birth only a few months ago, and most of my adult life I have had to care for a baby as well as do all my other work in the house and in the fields. For a long time I have wanted no more children, but I keep having them as long as I am with my husband. A nurse comes to visit our village regularly. She holds meetings for all the men and women together, to explain about family planning. Now these are well-known facts to us, but still nobody in our village practises birth control. When we sit together With the nurse, everybody seems to agree that this is the right thing to do when a family has grown big enough to give the parents security in their old age, and there are enough hands to attend to all the daily work. But when we go home, the men never talk about it. My husband and I attend every meeting, but in our home we have never talked about birth control. I desperately want to stop having more children, but this can only be done if my husband suggests it.'
It's a world problem
The rapid rise in world population is not creating problems only for the developing countries. The whole world faces the problem that raw materials are being used up at an increasing rate and food production cannot keep up with the population increase. People in the rich countries make the heaviest demands on the world's resources, its food, fuel and land, and cause the most pollution.
A baby born in the United States will use in his lifetime 30 times more of the world's resources than a baby born in India. Unless all the countries of the world take united action to deal with the population explosion there will be more and more people fighting for a share of less and less land, food and fuel, and the future will bring poverty, misery and war to us all.
Set book questions.
1- When did the world population begin to rise sharply?
2- What will it be at the end of this century?
3- When was it half? What it is now?
4- Which areas of the world have the slowest growth rates?"
5- Which areas of the world have the largest populations?
6- Which areas have the fastest growth rates?
7- Comment on the fall in birth and death rates in developed countries.
8- Which is falling faster in developing countries, the birth rate or the death rate?
9- How has the fall in the death rate affected the age structure of the population in less developed countries?
10- What percentage of the population is of working age?
    a- in more developed countries?            b- in less developed countries?

Unit 5  There is money in time
Our series on 'Antiques for Everyone' continues with a look at clocks.
How should one invest a sum of money in these days of inflation? Left in a bank it will barely keep its value, however high the interest rate. Only a brave man, or a very rich one, dares to buy and sell on the Stock Market. And it's no good putting it in a tin under the bed. Wise investment is the art of making your money increase with the passing of time, and today it seems that one of the best ways to protect your savings and even increase your wealth is to buy beautiful objects from the past. In previous articles we've discussed Persian rugs, furniture and silver. This month I'm going to offer you some advice on collecting clocks, which I personally consider are amongst the most in¬teresting of antiques.
I sometimes wonder what a being from another planet might report back about our way of life. 'The planet Earth is ruled by a mysterious crea¬ture that sits or stands in a room and makes a strange ticking sound. It has a face with twelve black marks on it, and two hands, by which it signals its orders. Men can do nothing without its permission, and it fastens its young round people's wrists so that everywhere men go they are still under its control. When it is disobeyed it makes a deafening noise particularly in the early morning. It has even been seen to beat the top of its head with two little drumsticks. This creature is the real master of Earth and men are its slaves.'
Whether or not we are slaves of time today depends on our culture and personality, but it is believed that many years ago kings kept special slaves to tell the time. Certain men were very clever at measuring the time of day according to the beating of their own hearts. They were made to stand in a fixed place and every hour or so would shout out the time. This ability seemed to run in families, for when a human timekeeper died his son would usually take over his job. So it seems that the first clocks were human beings.
However, men quickly found more convenient and reliable ways of telling the time. They learned to use the shadows cast by the sun and invented the sundial, still to be seen in the gardens of many stately homes. They marked the hours on candles, used sand in hour-glasses, and invented water-clocks. There's a fourteenth-century Chinese water-clock in London's Science Mu¬seum which still works. Indeed, any serious student of antiques should spend as much time as possible visiting palaces, stately homes and museums to see some of the finest examples of clocks from the past.
You could pay as much as £30,000 for the work of a master maker such as Tompion, but one of the joys of collecting clocks is that it's still possible to find quite cheap ones for your own home. After all, if you're going to be ruled by time why not invest in an antique clock and perhaps make a future profit? Here are some types to look out for, but be sure you go to a reliable dealer.
Grandfather clocks
Why 'grandfather' clock? Well, these clocks were passed down through the family and so were always thought of as 'grandfather's clock'. But the first domestic time pieces, the grandfathers of the clock family, were lantern clocks, which were hung from a nail on the wall. Unfortunately dust got into the works, and even worse, children and kittens used to swing from the weights and the pendulum. So first the face and works, and then the weights and the pendulum were protected by wooden cases. Before long the clock was nearly all case and was stood on the floor and called, not surprisingly, a long-case clock. These 'grand¬father' clocks were very expensive, made as they were from fine woods, often beautifully carved or inlaid (as in the picture) with ivory. Famous makers of this period included Thomas Tompion, John Harrison and Edward East, but don't get too excited if you find that the clock Grandma left you has one of these names on the back. Before you start jumping up and down shouting, 'We're rich, we're rich,' remember that plenty of people before the twentieth century had the idea of making cheap copies of famous originals and 'borrowing' the names of their betters. And don't forget that the first chiming mechanism wasn't introduced until 1696, so a chiming clock, how¬ever charming it sounds, will date from the eighteenth century. A genuine late seventeenth century grandfather clock made by East sold recently for just under £20,000.
Wall clocks
When Pitt, the British Prime Minister, put a tax on clocks in 1797 people stopped buying domestic clocks and relied instead on large wall clocks hung in public places for all to see. Many such large clocks are still known today as Act of Parliament clocks. Gradually wall clocks reduced in size and you may be able to pick up quite a neat little one for about £50. The cheapest at £20 are some American wall clocks but they have by far the best story. A certain Mr. Chauncey Jerome of Connecticut began mass-producing these wall clocks, which, with their pretty painted scenes on the lower half were quite expensive-looking. Chauncey made them so cheaply though, that when he sent a ship-load to Britain, the customs men thought he was trying to avoid paying the proper tax by putting too low a value on his goods. They were so sure he was deceiving them that they bought the entire ship-load for Her Majesty's Government. Out of his mind with joy Chauncey immediately loaded a couple more ships with clocks in the hope that the customs men would repeat their generous offer. They did not. I wonder what happened to all those clocks?
Nineteenth century carriage clocks
Watches were probably first invented in Italy and the first wrist watch mentioned in English history was one made for Queen Elizabeth i by the royal clockmaker. But there were also small clocks made to be carried around with you, especially when travelling from one town to another, known as 'carriage' clocks. Some of the best examples are French, especially those made by the famous Leroy family of Paris, but these clocks were popular throughout Europe. By the end of the nineteenth century they were being made in steadily increasing numbers and were considered ideal gifts for weddings and retire¬ments. The quality of these clocks is, as a rule, good, so what you buy depends on what you can afford. Prices are higher for clocks with additional, mechanisms, or with a finely decorated case.
A mid-nineteenth century clock like the French one illustrated above, would cost about £450 and include a repeat button and a strike. You can tell if there is a strike mechanism or not by looking for two large brass barrels with toothed ends at or near the bottom of the works. These frequently go Wrong, especially those intended to strike the quarter hours, so always check before buying by turning the hands through their full circle. If, as the minute hand passes twelve, the clock strikes an hour to which the small hour Hand is not pointing, all is not lost-it can be repaired. If, on the other hand, there is nothing but silence, it is likely that some lazy devil of a repairer in the past has removed part of the strike mechanism to get the clock going again without too much trouble. By the way, look out for carriage clocks in their original leather travelling cases. This can add to their charm and value.
Comprehension and interpretation
1- What does the writer advise people to do with their money?
2- What kinds of investment does he warn against?
3- What is the writer describing when he writes:
a) mysterious creature sits or stands in a room? b) its young are fastened round people's wrists?     c) the creature makes a deafening noise in the early morning?
4- Explain how a human timekeeper measured the time.
5- Name some other methods of measuring time before the invention of the clock.
6- Antique clocks are a good investment. What other advantages do they have? '
How would you invest a sum of money to beat inflation?

Unit 7  Energy sense makes future sense
The world is running out of oil, and energy experts believe that there could be serious shortages in ten years' time. Not only is each individual using more oil than ever before, as the standard of living in industrialised countries rises, but the population explosion means that each year many more people will be using oil in some form or other. Until recently we took oil for granted: it seemed it would never stop flowing. It was so cheap and plentiful that the whole world came to depend on it. Governments ""neglected other sources of energy: electricity was generated from oil and power stations were fired by it. It found its way into many of the products of light industry. Many people are surprised when they learn how many items in their homes contain oil.
The increase in the price of oil has brought the world to its senses. Governments are searching for a suitable alternative, but so far in vain. They are considering how they can make better use of the two other major fuels, coal and natural gas, but they have found that neither can take the place of oil in their economies. In recent years there has been a growing concern for the environment and coal not a popular fuel with environmentalists. Coal mines are ugly, and their development has a serious effect on animal and plant life; coal itself is a heavy pollutant. Natural gas, the purest of the three fuels, is also the most limited in supply.
The answer would seem to lie in nuclear power stations. They need very little fuel to produce enormous amounts of power and they do net pollute the atmosphere. Their dangers however, are so great and the cost of building them so high that some governments are in willing to invest in them. Not only could one accident in a single nuclear power station spread as much radio-activity as a thousand Hiroshima atom bombs, but the radio-active waste from these stations is extremely dangerous-for one hundred thousand years. So is there no possible alternative to nuclear power?
Well, there are several, but none of them seems likely to satisfy future world energy demands. Scientists have recently turned their attention to natural sources of energy ; the sun, the sea, the wind an3 hot springs. Of these the sun seems the most promising source for the future. Houses have already been built which are heated entirely by solar energy. However, solar energy can only be collected during daylight hours, and in coun¬tries where the weather is unreliable, an alterna¬tive heating system has to be included.
Experiments are being carried out at the University of Arizona on ways of storing solar energy on a large-scale. To satisfy a large part of the energy needs of a country like America, huge power stations covering 5,ooo square miles would have to be built and one wonders whether this would be acceptable to environmentalists. While experiments in generating energy from the sea and the wind are interesting, neither can be considered an obvious solution to a future energy crisis; the first because a lot of energy is needed to generate energy from the sea, and the second because the amount of energy generated from wind would satisfy only a small percentage of a nation's needs.
Another source of energy which could be more widely used is that generated by hot water or steam from under the earth (geothermal energy as it is called). This form of energy is already being used in New Zealand, Iceland, the Soviet Union and very successfully in Italy, where it generates a quarter of the nation's electricity.
Many scientists are optimistic that new ways of generating large amounts of energy will be successfully developed, but at the same time they fear the consequences. If the world population goes on increasing (at its present rate, and each individual continues to use more energy every year, we may, in fifty years' time, be burning up so much energy that we would damage the earth's atmosphere. By raising the temperature of the atmosphere, we could melt the Arctic and Antarctic ice-caps and change the pattern of vegetable and animal life throughout the world- a frightening possibility.
How to stop your car over-eating.
These days, we just can't afford to let our cars guzzle more fuel than they should Use these simple suggestions to help you save It-save energy.
Use minimum choke. And shut it off as soon as you can, We can't afford to burn up petrol at today's prices.
Regular servicing costs money. But it'll keep your car running at peak efficiency, which will pay you in the long run.
Don't race away from the lights. It wastes fuel. And you'll only be first at the next red light!
If you can, avoid rush hours. Sitting in traffic jams uses petrol and doesn't get you anywhere.
Sharing a car with work mates can save a small fortune in fuel. (It means fewer cars on the road too.) Take it in turns to provide the transport
It really does pay to keep to the new speed limits. A car travelling at 50 mph can use 30% less petrol than at 70mph.
Steady driving saves fuel. Anticipate hazards and avoid harsh braking.
If you can, leave your car at home for short trips. It'll slim your fuel bills. And you too!
Don't forget to Save It at work too. Not just in motoring, but anywhere you see energy being wasted.
Energy sense is common sense.
These dangers will have to be kept in mind as scientists continue with their experiments. In the meantime, we can all help to protect the environment by not wasting energy. This means driving more carefully (if you have to use a car- it's healthier and cheaper to ride a bike) and turning off unnecessary lighting and heating in the home. In these small ways we can all help to make the world a cleaner, healthier place for future generations. "
The man who tried
Bill Sandey, a builder, has a plan for cutting the cost of living. He wants to put up an 'independent' house, which would supply the people living in it with free heat, gas, electricity, water and food. Mr Sandey, aged 53, plans just a one-bedroom
house, for himself and his wife, but even on that scale he says he could grow nearly 1,000 kilos of vegetable and fruit a year.
The town council, however, has refused him permission to build the house where he wants, in the back garden of his present home. Two houses in one garden is disapproved of, he has been told, and a three-storey building might upset the neighbours. '  
'Red tape' says Mr Sandey. 'When will officials learn that this sort of thing is the only way ahead for a wasteful world running out of energy?'
Chickens, rabbits and goats would live on the ground floor, human beings would live on the first floor and the second floor would be a greenhouse for vegetables and fruit.
Rainwater would be stored, a windmill on the roof would provide electricity, and the waste would go through a special machine to produce methane gas for cooking and heating, and fertilizer for the plants.
Most of the heat would come from sunlight as the house would have walls of glass. The north wall would have double windows and the other walls would have special Venetian blinds, either letting the sun's rays through or keeping the warmth in. This would produce near-tropical conditions in the greenhouse.
Choose the best answer in the following
1- The world:   a has run out of oil;                 b did run out of oil;
                       c will never run out of oil;       d is running out of oil.
2 The main disadvantage of coal is that       a it is not expensive;       b there is not enough of it;       c it is a heavy pollutant;      d it is too easy to mine.
3- Natural gas cannot replace oil because
   a supplies are limited;        b it is a heavy pollutant;       c it is very expensive;
   d it is dangerous to use.
4- Nuclear power stations       a pollute the atmosphere;         b often explode;
          c produce extremely dangerous waste;          d are inexpensive to build.
5- We should save energy by       a driving faster;       b not stopping at traffic lights;
        c having our cars regularly serviced;          d driving slowly in traffic jams.
Can you think of other ways we can save energy ?
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