Final Revision Mask of Gold مستر يعقوب

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. Final Revision Mask of Gold مستر يعقوب

A) Questions & answers

1- Why was Leila pleased مسرورة to be back in Cairo?
- Because she was back with her family, safe and successful.

2- What familiar sounds of Cairo could Leila hear when she woke up at home?
- She could hear children playing in the street, the call نداء of the man selling melons and the distant roar of traffic ضجيج المرور المزعج.

3- What did the photo by بجوار Leila’s bed show?
It showed Leila looking at the camera and holding up تمسك a little gold figure of an animal تمثال لحيوان صغير مصنوع من الذهب.

4- What did the photo by Leila’s bed remind يذكر her of?
- It reminded her of that good day when Dr Hafez was really excited منفعلا and some of the days after that were not so good.

5- What did Leila feel when she remembered the bad days in Peru?
She felt a shiver رعشة down her back. الظهر

6- Why was Leila excited to be going to Peru?
Because she had never been to South America before.

7- Why did Leila fly to Peru?
To help Dr Hafez with his excavation work. التنقيب عن الآثار

8- What do you know about Dr Hafez?
He is a well-known Egyptian archaeologist and he worked in Peru in an excavation project helped by UNESCO.

9- Leila and Samira are two different characters. Discuss.
Leila is not at all like Samira. She is always worried about تقلق على everything but samara never worries about anything.

10- What did Samira warn تحذر Leila of?
She warned her of falling off a mountain in the Andes.

11- Where did the Incas live?
They lived at high altitudes الأماكن المرتفعة in Peru?

12- Why were the Incas tough?
Because they lived at high altitudes.

13- What was amazing مذهل about the Incas?
Although the Incas didn’t have any writing, they ruled a huge ضخمة empire إمبراطورية.

14- What do you know about the Inca Empire?
- The Inca Empire was at its height فى أزهى عصورها between 1492 and 1525. It stretched امتدت for about 3,5oo kilometres along على امنداد the pacific coast ساحل of South America. The empire extended امتدت across عبر the lands now known as Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

15- What was Dr Hafez looking for? Why?
He was looking for a king’s tomb in order to find some gold and silver work of the Chimu.
16- Why did the Incas conquer غزاthe Chimu?
Because they were famous for their gold and silver work.

17- Why would it be wonderful رائع to find a king’s tomb?
Because they would find things made by the Chimu.

18- What did Leila take with her when she travelled to Peru? Why?
She took a small machine and details تفاصيل of a new technique developed by the department of archaeology قسم الآثار in Cairo. They were hoping to use them in their excavation أعمال التنقيب in Peru.

19- What did researchers in Cairo discover?
They discovered a new way to date old things.

20- What was the laser machine آلة الليزر used for?
It was used for dating old things.

21- Why is the laser machine a secret سر?
- Because not many people know about it and the Egyptians are the first to use it.

22- What was Samira? And where did she work?
She was a reporter صحفية. She worked on one of the Cairo newspapers.

23- What was Samira looking for?
- She was looking for a good story for her newspaper.

24- What would be a good title عنوان for a newspaper article مقالة?
- “Secrets أسرار of Inca Tomb” or “Egyptian archaeologist finds Inca treasure.”

25- How long did Leila stay in Peru?
- She stayed in Peru for a few weeks (about two months).

26- What did Leila promise وعدت Samira to do?
- She promised to keep in touch with her by sending her a postcard or an e-mail.

27- Why did Leila take a connecting flight?
- Because there was no direct flight رحلة مباشرة from Cairo to Lima.

28- Why did Leila spend one night in New York?
- Because the flight الرحلة from Cairo arrived at night and the flight to Lima was the next morning.

29- Why did Leila ask for a window seat during أثناء her flight الرحلة to Lima?
- To look down on نظرت إلىthe city's skyscrapers ناطحات السحاب.

30- What did Lander say he was? What did he say he was looking for?
- He said he was a mining engineer مهندس تعدين. He said he was looking for places where there were interesting things to find.

31- What did Lander tell Leila about himself?
He told her he was a mining engineer and that he was going to work around Cuzco as he was looking for copper نحاس, silver and other interesting things.

32- Why did Leila think that Lander was German ألماني?
- Because he had a strange accent. لهجة
33- What did Leila tell Lander about her work?
- She told him about the archaeological dig الحفر الأثرى and that it was part of a UNESCO exchange تبادل programme.

34- What does Leila think of the UNESCO exchange programme?
She thinks it is an interesting idea because there are some similarities تشابهات between Ancient Egyptians and the ancient peoples شعوب of South America.

35- What made Leila take up يدرس archaeology?
She took up archaeology because Dr Hafez who was a friend of her family used to tell her about archaeology, so she got interested in it.

36- Why didn’t Leila study archaeology with Dr Hafez in Cairo?
So as not to let تدع people think يعتقد that Dr Hafez was giving her special treatment. يعاملها معاملة خاصة

37- Where did Leila do her degree حصلت على درجتها? Why?
- She did her degree in Rome because she didn’t want people to think that Dr Hafez was giving her special treatment. يعاملها معاملة خاصة

38- Where was Leila’s first dig عملية حفر?
- In the Valley of the Nobles وادى النبلاء in Luxor.

39- Where did Leila work with Dr Hafez before?
She worked with him in the Valley of the Nobles in Luxor.

40- What did Leila and Dr Hafez discover in the Valley of the Nobles?
They discovered a tomb مقبرة full of wonderful paintings رسومات of birds and animals on the walls as well as بالإضافة إلى some beautiful jewellery مجوهرات.

41- What papers did Leila bring تحضر from Cairo to Dr Hafez?
She brought him papers about the latest developments أحدث التطورات in archaeological research. بحوث الآثار

42- Why did Lander search فتش the pocket in the seat in front of Leila?
To get the papers she brought from Cairo.

43- What did Lander pretend he was looking for when Leila woke up?
- He pretended he was looking for the in-flight magazine. مجلة طيران داخلى

44- What made Leila doubt يشك فى Lander?
- He tried to take the papers about the latest developments in archaeological research that Leila was taking to Dr Hafez.He was asking her many questions and she didn't feel comfortable.

45- Why didn’t Leila tell Lander more information about her work?
- Because he was asking a lot of questions about her work and she didn’t feel comfortable. She was also suspicious of تشك فيه him.

46- Where did Lander say he was going to be working?
- He said he was going to be working around Cuzco.

47- When did the Customs الجمارك at Lima Airport let Leila through with the laser machine?
- When they knew that she was a part of the UNESCO archaeological project.
48- Why did Dr Hafez look puzzled متحير when he was introduced to Lander?
- Because he thought he had met him before in the Machu Picchu area منطقة doing some excavation work. أعمال التنقيب

49- Where were the German tourists going?
- They were going to Machu Picchu, an ancient great Inca city that was lost فقدت for hundred of years.

50- What did Dr Hafez say after reading the papers Leila brought with her?
- He said that they were working along the right lines يعملون فى الطريق الصحيح.

51- What did Dr Hafez expect توقع to find at the site near Quenco?
- He expected to find great Inca cities and cities of the peoples they conquered.

52- Why did Dr Hafez speak in a quiet voice صوت during their flight to Cuzco?
- Because he didn’t want people to hear what he was going to say.

53- Where did Dr Hafez's group dig يحفرون?
- They dug at a site near Quenco, an old Inca city near which Dr Hafez was doing excavation work أعمال التنقيب.

54- Why did Dr Hafez say that Leila had come to Peru at a good time?
- Because they discovered a tomb which Dr Hafez thought it might be royal ملكية. Leila also brought the laser machine to help them with their excavation.

55- Why did Dr Hafez think that the wall in the city could be a tomb of a king?
- There were some marks علامات on the wall and a picture of a llama اللامة.

56- What did a picture of a llama on an Inca tomb usually show تبين?
- It usually showed that it might be a royal tomb.

57- Why was Dr Hafez’s and Leila’s experience in the Valley of the Nobles useful?
- Because it could help them discover the similarities الشبه and differencesالاختلاف between the ways the Incas and the Ancient Egyptians buried their dead.

63- What similarities were there between the ancient Egyptians and the Incas? They put gold and silver objects أشياء beside بجوار the bodies أجساد of their kings. They put gold figures تماثيل and animals in their tombs. They put food and drink beside them. They both mummified حنطوا their kings. They dressed them in beautiful clothes. They put gold masks أقنعة on their faces.

58- How were the ancient Egyptians different from the Incas?
- The Ancient Egyptians had a writing system نظام, but the Incas didn't have any. The Ancient Egyptians respected احترموا women and servants whereas بينما the Incas killed them to serve يخدموا their kings in the other world العالم الآخر.

59- How were the Incas and the Ancient Egyptians different in the ways they buried their dead?
- Every year at important festivals أعياد, the Inca mummified حنطوا kings were put on litters نقالات, dressed in fine clothes and taken through the streets. The Ancient Egyptians never did that.
- The Incas killed women and servants الخدم and buried them دفنوهم with the king to serve يخدموا him in the other world.
60- Why did the Incas and the Ancient Egyptians put food and drink beside the bodies أجساد of their dead kings and queens?
- They believed they would need them when they went into the next world العالم الآخر.

61- Why did the Incas kill women and servants and bury them with the king?
- To serve him يخدمونه in the next world العالم الآخر.

62- Which civilization حضارة is superior أرقى: the Inca or the ancient Egyptian? Why?
- The ancient Egyptian civilization is superior because it invented اخترعت a way of writing using pictures and it was more human انسانية as the ancient Egyptians didn't kill women, servants or children as the Incas did.

63- The ancient Egyptian civilization is more human إنسانية than the Inca Civilization. Discuss ناقش ذلك.
- The ancient Egyptians invented a way of writing system. They didn't kill women and servants or children as the Incas did.

64- On the plane to Cuzco, what did Dr Hafez tell Leila about Lander?
- He told her that Lander worked for United Mining الشركة المتحدة للتعدين. He was sure his name wasn't Lander. He got involved with اشترك مع some people who were taking Inca objects out of the country.

65- Why did Martin Lander have to leave his job with United Mining?
- Because he got involved with اشترك مع some people who were taking Inca objects out of the country.

72- Why did Dr Hafez suspect يشك فى Martin Lander?
- His name wasn't Lander. He got involved with some people who were taking Inca objects out of the country. United Mining was not working in Peru then.

73- Why did Dr Hafez tell Leila to be careful حذرة?
- Because there were some people who wanted to dig up ينقبون old Inca cities.

74- Why did thieves break into يقتحمون old Inca tombs?
- To لكى steal يسرقوا the gold and silver things and sell them يبيعونها to rich collectors هواة جمع التحف.

75- Where should gold and silver things be kept توضع? Why?
- They should be kept in museums متاحف for everyone to see.

76- How did Dr Hafez organize ينظم the excavation work in Peru?
- He formed كون two teams under his direction تحت اشرافه and Leila would be in charge of مسئولة عن one team with three local archaeologists.

77- Why did Dr Hafez send for استدعى Leila to work with him in Peru?
- Because she understood him and he trusted her يثق بها. She was an experienced archaeologist. آثرية ذات خبرة

78- Leila’s hands were shaking تهتز when the plane to Cuzco started descending تهبط. Give two reasons.
- She didn’t like landing هبوط الطائرة, especially خاصة in small planes. She didn’t expect to be in charge of مسئولة عن local archaeologists.

79- How did Amalia Guzman meet Leila at Cuzco Airport?
- She shook hands with her صافحتها and didn’t smile لم تبتسم. She didn’t offer to help her with her luggage though مع أنها it was heavy.

80- Why was Leila nervous when she knew she would be in charge of an excavation team فريق للتنقيب?
- She wasn’t sure she would be able to do the work Dr Hafez wanted her to do.

81- Why do you think Leila was still tired and had a headache صداع?
- Because she had jet-lag إرهاق السفر جوا and wasn’t used to the high altitude.

82- Why did Dr Hafez have to go to Quenco?
- To meet the local UNESCO representative ممثل.

83- Why did Dr Hafez have to keep good relations علاقات with the UNESCO people?
(Why did Dr Hafez want the UNESCO people to have a good impressionانطباع of what they were doing?)
- Because the UNESCO people were supporting تمول the excavation in Peru, and it was an important project for him and for the Peruvian government.

84- What would happen if the excavation team did not find something important in Peru?
- The UNESCO might not support تمول them any longer.

85- How much did Leila know about Inca civilization?
She did some work on the Incas when she was studying at the Italian Institute of Archaeology. She read Dr Hafez's reports تقارير about the excavation.

86- How did Amalia feel towards Leila? Why?
She was unfriendly غير ودودة to Leila and jealous of غيورة her as she believed she only came to work in Peru because Dr Hafez was a family friend.

87- What wrong idea did Amalia get about Leila? How did Leila defend herself?
Amalia believed that Leila only came to work in Peru because Dr Hafez was a family friend. Leila defended دافعت عن herself saying that she was an experienced ذات خبرة archaeologist and Dr Hafez thought her experience would be useful in this excavation.

88- Why did Dr Hafez ask Leila to work with him in Peru?
- Because she was an experienced ذات خبرة archaeologist and Dr Hafez thought her experience خبرة in the valley of Nobles in Egypt would be useful in this excavation.

89- Where was the site Amalia showed Leila?
- It was on top of أعلى a rocky hill. تل صخرى

90- Where did the Chimu sometimes build their tombs?
- They sometimes built them in hillsides جوانب التلال.

91- Why did the Incas allow the Chimu kings to rule their own people?
- Because they wanted to keep them loyal. مخلصين

92- Why did the Incas send the Chimu kings’ sons to Cuzco?
- Because they wanted to make sure that their fathers were loyal. مخلصين

93- How did the Incas make sure تأكد that the Chimu people were loyal?
They allowed their own kings to rule and sent their sons to Cuzco.

94- Why did Ramon shout? صاح
Because he found a gold figure تمثال of a child.

95- Why did the Incas sacrifice يضحى بـ children? What did they put beside their bodies?
-They sacrificed them to please the gods. They put gold figures beside their bodies.

96- A person’s life didn’t have much value قيمة for the Incas. Explain.
-The Incas sacrificed ضحوا بـ children to please the gods. They killed women and servants and buried them with the king to serve him in the next world.

97- Why was Pablo shown everything found at the site?
As he works for the Ministry of Culture وزارة الثقافة. He's on the committee لجنة, which advises the UNESCO representative ممثل about the project. He makes a note of يدون everything they find.

98- The Incas were a great civilization. Explain. اشرح ذلك
They ruled over a huge area of South America. Their empire extended from what is now Colombia in the north to the country that is now Chile in the south. They ruled over more than 10 million people. They built great cities and made beautiful things.

99- What did Pablo tell Leila about the Peruvians شعب بيرو?
He said that Peruvians are very proud of their Inca heritage تراث . They allow foreigners to excavate يحفر their ancient cities. They have to be careful, because there are many robbers who come to Peru to steal their culture and sell it to rich collectors.

112- Why was Ramon the first to enter the tomb that was found?
- Because he was small enough to get through ينفذ من خلال the hole in the wall.

13- What did Ramon find in the tomb?
He found some human bones عظام and some bits of pottery. قطع أواني فخارية

114- Why does Leila think that Amalia doesn’t like her?
Or: why did Leila think that Amalia was unfriendly to her?
- Because she is Dr Hafez’s assistant مساعدة and she doesn’t want her to be in charge of her team.

115- Why didn’t Dr Hafez want to explore يستكشف the tomb immediately?
Because he needed to get his computer fixed يصلح and see the UNESCO representative before they came to inspect يفتش them.

116- Why do you think Amalia didn’t seem very friendly to Leila?
Because Leila is Dr Hafez’s assistant مساعدة or because she is in her team.

117- Why does Dr Hafez think that Leila and Amalia should be friends?
Because they are about the same age and they are both archaeologists.

118- What was Dr Hafez’s opinion about Amalia?
He thought that she was a good archaeologist. She knew a lot about tombs and she was the same age as Leila. She had done a lot of good work on the excavation.

119- Why didn’t Leila go to the project office with Dr Hafez?
Because she wanted to wander off تتجول into the old part of the town.
120- What did some children do when Leila walked down the street?
- They ran after her laughing and clapping يصفقونr hands.

121- What did the children who ran after Leila remind يذكر her of?
They reminded her of their ancestors أجداد, the Incas whose tombs she would be exploring.

122- Who did Leila see in the square?
- She saw Pablo, Amalia and Lander.

123- Why was Leila feeling a little tired while she was wandering off تتجول into the old part of Quenco?
- Because of a combination تزامن of jet-lag and the effects تأثير of the altitude.

124- What did Leila do when she felt tired in Quenco?
She looked for a café to sit down and have a cool drink.

125- Why did Leila go to café de la Plaza?
She needed to sit down and have a cool drink as it was hot and Leila was feeling a little tired.

126- Who did Leila see at the café in Quenco? What did she notice يلاحظ?
She saw Amalia sitting with Lander. She noticed that Amalia was upset and was shaking her head.

127- What did Leila decide to do when she saw Amalia at café de la Plaza? Why?
- She decided to go and talk her because she thought of تذكرت what Dr Hafez had said about making friends with her.

128- At café de la Plaza, what made Leila stop dead? تتسمر فى مكانها
She saw Amalia talking with Lander who helped people to steal from excavations.

129- When did Leila feel suspicious شكاك about Amalia?
She felt suspicious about her when she saw her sitting with Lander at the café.

130- Why did Leila ask Dr Hafez to go with her to the café?
To show him Amalia sitting with Lander at a café in the square.

131- Why was Dr Hafez not suspicious of Amalia?
Because he trusted her and he couldn’t believe that she would do anything wrong.

132- Why didn’t Dr Hafez believe that Leila had seen Amalia with Lander?
Because he trusted Amalia and he couldn’t believe that she would do anything wrong.

133- What did Leila find when she called up the United Mining website?
She found that United Mining had ended its operations in Peru.

134- When did Leila realize that Lander was a liar?
When she logged on to the internet and found that United Mining ended their operation in Peru in 1999.

135- What did Dr Hafez and his group find near the centre of the cave?
They found some human bones and some small pieces of cloth.

136- Why did Leila and the others gasp شهقوا when they saw the skullجمجمة?
- Because the skull was broken and there was a big crack شرخ in it.
137- What was strange about the skull of the dead man the work team found in the cave?
The skull was broken and there was a big crack in it.

138- There are two possibilities about the big crack in the skull. Explain.
Dr Hafez thought that the man might have been killed but Leila thought that the skull could have been broken by falling rocks. صخور متساقطة

139- When would Dr Hafez and his group be sure it was a king’s body?
If they could find a gold mask.

140- How did Dr Hafez and his group date the cloth they found inside the tomb?
By using the laser – dating machine. جهاز ليزر لتحديد عمر الأشياء

141- How did Dr Hafez know that the body they found inside the cave was buried around 1400?
By using the laser-dating machine.

142- What did Pablo say when he knew that the body was buried around 1400?
He said that it was a good start.

143- How did the work team spend the rest بقية of the morning?
They took a close look ألقوا نظرة متفحصة at the area around the body.

144- What were the work team looking for?
They were looking for the gold mask.

145- What did people put in tombs in the time of the Incas?
They put bowls أوانى of food and water in tombs.

146- What did the Incas bury when they buried an important person like a king?
- They buried precious نفيسة things with them.

147- What would happen on finding some precious things in the cave?
They might be able to say it was a royal tombمقبرة ملكية .

148- Why was it hard work inside the cave?
Because there wasn’t much air and it was quite إلى حد ما hot.

149- Why did the work team need to find something quickly?
- Because there was going to be a UNESCO inspection تفتيش.

150- What did Amalia say about Lander?
She said she had known him for years and that he worked for United Mining. He was interested in archaeology.

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