Conjunctions مستر ابن سيناء

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05062011

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. Conjunctions مستر ابن سيناء





Conjunctions

to/in order to/so as to +inf. ( لكى )
*We study hard to/in order to/ so as to succeed.
that/so that/in order that + s + modal verb ( فعل ناقص ) جملة
*We study hard that/so that/in order that we can succeed.
because + s +want to+ inf. (want جملة تحتوى على الفعل )
*We study hard because we want to succeed.

1-because/as/since + جملة
نتيجة))….because/as/since……(سبب)
*He is in bed because/as/since he is ill.
because of/due to/owing to/through/on account of/thanks to +noun or (gerund) v+ing.
*He is in bed because of/ due to/owing to/through/on account of/ his illness (being ill) .


سبب ) )… so/therefore/consequently/that's why..( نتيجة )
*He is ill so/therefore/consequently/that's why he is in bed.

سبب) ) but/however ( نتيجة عكسية )
*He is ill but he will go to school. هنا النتيجة عكس المتوقع He is ill (سبب ) he will go to school. ( نتيجة عكسية)
*He is ill, however he will go to school.

*He is ill. However, he will go to school.
نتيجة عكسية ))although/though/even though ( سبب )- -( نتيجة
*Although/Though/Even though he is ill, he will go to school.
*He will go to school, although/though/even though he is ill.
Whether+ صفة or not ( عكس الصفة )
He will go to school whether he is ill or not (well)
Despite/In spite of/Regardless of ( بغض النظر عن ) +noun/ v+ing
Despite/In spite of/Regardless of his illness/being ill, he will go to school.
However +صفة (حال )+ s+v ( سبب)….. ( نتيجة عكسية)
*However ill he is, he will go to school.
Whatever ( مهما ) + (صفة ملكية )noun+ be (سبب )……. -( نتيجة عكسية)
*Whatever his illness is , he will go to school.
Whatever +noun+have(سبب )……. -( نتيجة عكسية)
*Whatever illness he has, he will go to school.
adj. as +s+be(سبب )……. -( نتيجة عكسية)
*Ill as he is, he will go to school.
and/ both … and/as well as/ not only ….but (also)…….as well.
أولا فى حالة عطف فاعل على فاعل التركيزيكون على الفعل( هل يتبع الفاعل الاول ام الثانى ام كلاهم ا
*Ali and I are students. Both Ali and I are students. ( الفاعل يتبع كليهما )
*Ali as well as I is a student. ( الفعل يتبع الفاعل الاول )
*Not only Ali but( also) I am a student as well. الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثانى) )
Neither…or هو ُEither….or و Both….and نفى
*Neither Ali nor I am a teacher. ( الفعل هنا يتبع الفاعل الثانى )
ثانيا فى حالة عطف فعل على فعل
both ….and (كلا من .... و ) / and
*Mona did the homework and watched TV.
* Mona both did the homework and watched TV.
As well as/in addition to/besides +v+ing
*As well as/in addition to/besides doing the homework Mona watched TV.
جملة…….in addition+ جملة 6
*Mona did the homework in addition she watched TV.
Not only(صيغة سؤال )…..but(also)………..as well.
*Not only did Mona do the homework but she (also) watched TV as well.
……not only…….but (also)………as well.
*Mona not only did the homework but she(also) watched TV as well.
Neither….( صيغة استفهام) nor………..
*Neither did Ali watch TV nor play football.
* Ali neither watched TV nor played football.
So do I/ Neither do I
( ضمير) فاعل+ فعل مساعد مثبت …………… So+ جملة مثبتة
So do I Ali watches Tv everyday. *
*Salim can play football. So can Omer.
*I went to school last week. So did my friend.
( ضمير) فاعل+ فعل مساعد مثبت …………… Neither+ جملة منفية
I don't like English. Neither do my friends. *
* Nura can't read . Neither can Heba



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