اقوى ملزمة قواعد للصف الثانى الثانوى 2011

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صفحة 1 من اصل 10 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10  الصفحة التالية

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09012011

مُساهمة 

modars1 اقوى ملزمة قواعد للصف الثانى الثانوى 2011






اقوى ملزمة قواعد للصف الثانى الثانوى 2011
هنا
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جزء من الملزمة
Grammar Review
Past and present tenses
Present simple
I/You/We work/don't work for a well-known Egyptian company.
He/ She / It lives/doesn't live in Cairo.
In Questions:
When does he/she arrive at work?
Where do you/we/they live?
Do I/you/we/ they live in Cairo? C Yes, I do. /No, I don't.
Does he/she /it live there? C Yes, he does./No, she doesn't.
Use the present simple for:
Habits / repeated actions:
العادات والأفعال (الأحداث المتكررة)
I go swimming every week.
Situations which are true for a long time.
المواقف التى تظل صحيحة لفترات طويلة.
He lives in Luxor.
Facts that are always true.
الحقائق التى لا تتغير (علمية – عملية)
Doctors help ill people.

Present continuous
Statements:
I am cooking lunch for my family.
You/We/They are listening to music on their MP3 players.
He/She/It is running fast.
Questions:
Are you/we/they studying at the university?
Yes, we/they are. C No, we/they aren't.
Is he/she working this morning?
Yes, he is. C No, she isn't.
Where are you/we/they going?
What am I doing?
When is he/she/it arriving?
Use the present continuous for:
actions that are happening now.
الأفعال التى تقع الآن (لحظة الكلام)
o I can't see you now. I'm revising for the test.
actions that are happening around now.
الأحداث التى تحدث فى الوقت الحالى (فى الغالب تدوم لفترة معينة)
o My sister is studying English at university.
Past simple
Statements:
I/You/He/She/It/We/They arrived/didn't arrive
Questions:
When did l/you/he/she/it/we/they arrive?
Did l/you/we/they/he/she/it arrive this morning?
C Yes, l/you/we/they/he/she/it did.
C No, l/you/we/they/he/she/it didn't.
Note:
Form the past simple of regular verbs by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive.
Use the past simple for:
an action that started and finished in the past.
حدث بدأ وانتهى فى الماضى.
o She cooked a delicious lunch yesterday.
repeated actions in the past.
حدث متكرر فى الماضى.
o She cooked lunch every day last week.
Common errors:
I playing tennis yesterday. (played)
I was play tennis yesterday. (played)
Past continuous
Statements & questions:
I/He/She/It was/wasn't flying.
What was he/she/it doing?
You/We/They were/weren't talking.
Where were you/we/they flying?
Was l/he/she talking loudly?
Yes, you were. C No, you weren't.
Were you/we/they talking about school?
Yes, I was. C No, I wasn't.
Use the past continuous for:
something in progress when an action took place.
حدث (فعل) كان مستمر عندما حدث فعل خر.
When he arrived, I was watching television.
past actions happening at the same time.
حدثان أو أكثر يقعان فى نفس الوقت فى الماضى.
While the teacher was talking, everyone was taking notes.
Present perfect
Statements:
I/You/We/ They have/haven't played that game yet.
He/She has/hasn't finished that book.
Questions:
Where has he/she/it gone?
What have you/we/they studied?
Has he/she/it finished yet?
Yes, he/she/it has. C No, he/she/it hasn't.
Have you/we/they watched that film yet?
Yes, I have. C No, I haven't.
Yes, they have. C No, we haven't.
Use the present perfect for:
actions which began in the past and are still continuing.
حدث بدأ فى الماضى ولازال مستمر وغالبا ما تستخدم فى هذه الحالة for / since
o I've read three books this week.
o I've been at this school since 1997/for ten years.
actions which have happened recently.
حدث انتهى لتوه منذ لحظات قليلة وغالبا نستخدم just .
o I've just finished reading this book.
past experiences (without saying when).
o Have you ever met anyone famous?
o She's never met anyone famous yet, but she hopes to one day.
Common errors
I am studying English for five years. (have studied)
Note:
To talk about something which started in the past and still continues in the present, use the present perfect, not the present continuous.
لا تستخدم المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن حدث بدأ فى الماضى وما زال مستمر فى الحاضر.
I have been to Italy last year.
Note: Do not use a specific time in the past. لا تستخدم المضارع التام عند ذكر وقت محدد فى الماضى

Linking words (conjunctions)
Because: to give a reason
It took me a long time to finish the book because it is so long.
but/although to contrast ideas
Note:
But can link two adjectives or two ideas with verbs.
يمكن أن تربط but بين صفتين أو فعلين.
He is young but strong.
Swift wrote many books, but none were as successful as Gulliver's Travels.
Although he spent his first years in England, Swift went to school in Ireland.

if/unless to introduce conditions
If you want to know more about Swift, look him up on the internet.
He won't go to sleep unless you tell him a story.
while to link activities in time
While I was reading the newspaper, I fell asleep.
I heard it while as or the bus.
Revision of past verb tenses
Past perfect
When I woke up, my father had/hadnt left.
Where had you seen him before?
Had he/she been there before?
Yes, he had. C No, she hadn't.
Use the past perfect:
to show which of two actions or events happened first.
لتوضح أى من الفعلين أو الحدثين وقع أولا.
By the time I met John, he had finished shopping. (had finished is the earlier activity)
to explain something that happened earlier in the past.
لتفسير شئ حدث قبل (حدث آخر) أو وقت معين فى الماضى.
He was tired because he had run all the way home.
Common error
When the police arrived, the robbers was left. (had left)
The past perfect is had + past participle.

Past simple and past continuous
When I woke up, it was raining.
What were you doing when I arrived?

Use the past simple to show a single action (woke up/arrived) which takes place while another action is in progress (past continuous: was raining/were you doing).
الماضى البسيط يوضح أن حدث واحد قطع حدث آخر كان مستمرا فى الماضى

Past simple or present perfect?
My brother learnt to drive last year.
Use the past simple (learnt) for a completed past action.
يستخدم الماضى البسيط للتعبير عن حدث اكتمل فى الماضى (لا علاقة له بالحاضر)
My brother has learnt to drive.
Use the present perfect (has learnt) for an event that was either recent or when we do not know when it happened: It describes the experience in general.
استخدم المضارع التام للتعبير عن حدث إما حدث مؤخرا أو لا نعرف متى حدث بالضبط أو عندما تتكلم بصفة عامة عن تجربة فى حياتك.
Common error
I've visited the Pyramids last year.
If we say when something happened, use the past simple.
Future verb forms
Using Will:
will + infinitive
I expect I will (I'll) see you tomorrow.
We will not (won't) meet again until next week.
When will she get here?
Will they be here soon? Yes, they will. C No, they won't.
Use will + infinitive for:
Predictions. I think you'll enjoy your holiday.
Future facts. I'll be 16 next week.
Quick decisions. That's the phone - I'll answer it.
offers. I'll go shopping with you if you like.
Common error
The water's boiling - I'm turning, the gas off. (will turn)
For a quick decision, use will, not the present continuous (which is used for an arrangement).
للقرار السريع نستخدم will بينما نستخدم المضارع المستمر عند عمل ترتيبات لشئ عقدت النية على فعله فى المستقبل.
going to + infinitive
I am (I'm) going to work hard this term.
I am not (I'm not) going to be late.
What are you going to do when you leave school?
Is he/she going to buy that book? Yes, she is. C No, he isn't.
Are you/we going to see the film? Yes, I am/we are. No, I'm not/we're not.
Use going to - infinitive for:
Plans, intentions and decisions.
عند التعبير عن شئ مخطط له أو عند وجود نيه أو قرار مسبق.
I'm going to do more exercise next year.
Predictions with evidence.
تنبؤ مع وجود دليل.
There are no clouds in the sky. It's going to be another sunny day.
Present continuous for the future
Use the present continuous to talk about the future for arrangements and completed plans.
يستخدم فى المستقبل للتعبير عن الترتيبات والخطط الكاملة
The class is visiting the museum next week. We are meeting at 9 o'clock on Monday morning.
Definite and indefinite articles
The indefinite article a/an
Only use a/an with singular countable nouns.
تستخدم a/an مع الاسم المفرد الذى يعد.
Use a/an to:
refer to something for the first time.
عند الاشارة لشئ للمرة الاولى.
A bird can work in a team.
refer to one of many.
للإشارة إلى واحد من كثير.
He's a player in that football team.
refer to someone's job.
عند الحديث عن وظيفة شخص ما.
She is a civil engineer.
a or an?
Use an with words which begin with a vowel sound.
I read an article about Golding.
If the letters u or h have a consonant sound, use a.
أى إذا كانت صوت u تنطق تماما كما ننط حرف U . وإذا كانت h تنطق أى ليست صامتة.
My sister works in a hospital. She has to wear a uniform.
If the letters u or h have a vowel sound use an.
إذا كانت u تنطق كأى حرف متحرك a, e, o, i
My uncle is an honest man. He drives an underground train.
The definite article the
You can use the with all kinds of nouns: singular or plural, countable or uncountable.
تستخدم THE مع الاسم الذى يعد أولا يعد ومع المفرد والجمع ولكن بشروط:
Use the:
to refer to something you have already referred to.
عند ذكر شئ أو شخص تم الاشارة له من قبل.
A bird was put in a cage with some food. The bird could see the food but could not reach it.
to refer to something there is only one of it.
مع الاشياء التى يوجد منها واحد فقط.
Golding was a sailor in the British navy.
to refer to an invention or a type of animal.
عند الحديث عن الاختراعات أو ذكر نوع معين من الحيوانات (لاحظ يأتى بعدها الحيوان فى صيغة المفرد)
The computer says the lion is a member of the cat family. 
with the names of most seas, oceans and rivers:
مع معظم اسماء المحيطات والبحار والأنهار.
the Pacific Ocean/the Mediterranean Sea/the Nile
with the names of some countries (usually ones in a group of some kind).
مع بعض الدول وخصوصا التى تتكون من مجموعة متماثلة.
the United Arab Emirates/the United Kingdom/the United States
No article
Use no article:
with plural countable nouns (with a general meaning).
مع الجمل إذا كنا نتحدث عنه بصفة عامة ولا نقصد مجموعة معينة.
Children can be noisy.
with uncountable nouns (with a general meaning).
مع الاسماء التى لا تعد إذا كنا نتكلم أيضا بصفة عامة
If you're thirsty, drink water.
with the names of towns, cities and most countries.
مع أسماء المدن والقرى ومعظم الدول.
Luxor/London/Egypt/Turkey
Common errors
A computer has changed the way we work. (Use the, not a/an, for inventions.)
I prefer a wooden furniture. (Furniture is an uncountable noun so you cannot use a.)
Comparative and superlative forms
One-syllable adjectives ending with two consonants or a long vowel: add -r/the -st or -er/the -est.
الصفات المكونة من مقطع واحد تأخذ النهايات –er أو the –est
Large → larger → the largest C deep → deeper → the deepest
One-syllable adjectives ending with a short vowel and one consonant: double the last consonent and add -er/the -est.
إذا كانت الصفة منتهية بحرف ساكن واحد مسبوق بمتحرك (واحد قصير) نضاعف الحرف الأخير.
Big → bigger → the biggest C fat → fatter → the fattest
Two or more syllable adjectives ending in y: change y to –'i' and add -er/the -est.
الصفات المنتهية ب y عامة سواء من مقطعين أو أكثر تقلب y إلى i ونضيف النهايات السابقة.
Easy → easier → the easiest
Many two or more syllable adjectives: use more/the most + adjective.
الصفات المكونة من مقطعين فأكثر نضيف لها more و the most
Difficult → more difficult → the most difficult
Other words, phrases and irregular forms:
Less → the least are the opposites of هما مقابل more and the most.
My book is less interesting than yours, but Ali's is the least interesting (book).
You can compare with (not) as + adjective + as.
يمكن أن تستخدم الصيغة التالية فى المقارنة.
not as + صفة + as
Mount Fuji is not as dangerous as Annapurna.
Good and bad have irregular forms.
good → better → the best C bad → worse → the worst
This hotel is better than that one, but the Blue Hotel is the worst 
Use comparative adjectives with than to compare two people or things.
تستخدم الدرجة الثانية عند المقارنة (-er - more ) بين شخصين أو شيئين.
Mount Fuji is more beautiful than the Matterhorn.

Use the + superlative adjectives to compare more than two people or things. تستخدم الدرجة الثالثة the most / the –est عندما نقارن بين أكثر من اثنين.
Mount Fuji is the most popular mountain in the book.
Common errors
Everest is more higher than Kilimanjaro. (higher)
Add -er/-est to short adjectives instead of using the word more/most.
Annapuma is dangerouser than Everest (more dangerous)
Use more with long adjectives instead
Relative clauses and relative pronoun
In all relative clauses, use:
who or that for people.
تستخدم who للأشخاص.
which or that for things.
تستخدم which للأشياء.
where for places.
تستخدم where للأماكن.
when for times.
تستخدم when للزمن أو الوقت
whose to show that something belongs to or is connected with someone or something. تستخدم للتوضح أن شئ ينتمى لشخص أو شئ
Type 1
Type 1 relative clauses give us important or necessary information about people, things or places. They tell us which person, thing or place.
النوع الأول وهو الذى يعطى معلومة مهمة أو ضرورية للشخص أو الشئ أو المكان ولا نستخدم فاصلة فى هذا النوع
Note:
Do not use commas around the clause.
The supermarket which Miss O'Connor works for buys vegetables from Fruco.
The man that Ibrahim met at the airport was from Scotland.
We can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the clause.
يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل إذا كان مفعولا للجملة.
The man Ibrahim met at the airport was from Scotland.
Type 2
Type 2 relative clauses do not tell us which person, thing or place. They only give us more information about them.
النوع الثانى لا يخبرنا أى شخص أو شئ أو مكان هذا الذى نقصده فقط يعطى معلومة اضافية.
Mr Wong , who has just arrived in Egypt, is the chief buyer for a Chinese company.
The company, which is in Beijing, employs 1,000 people.
Always use commas around the clause.
دائما استخدم الفاصلة حول جملة الصلة فى هذا النوع.
We can never leave out the relative pronoun.
لا يمكننا حذف ضمير الوصل فى هذا النوع
Common errors:
The man that Ibrahim met at the airport he is from Scotland.
Do not use another pronoun to repeat a reference.
Whose
Whose is a relative pronoun which is used to show that something or someone belongs to something or someone else.
يستخدم ليبين أن شيئا أو شخصا يخص شيئا أو شخصا آخر.
In a type 1 relative clause:
I work for a supermarket chain whose head office is in Ireland.
In a type 2 relative clause:
Miss O'Connor, whose company buys fruit and vegetables from Fruco, has made an appointment to meet Mr Latif.
Used to
use "used to + المصدر " :
To contrast past and present habits:
عند مقارنة عادات كانت موجودة فى الماضى مع أخرى فى المضارع. (أو لم تعد موجودة فى المضارع)
He used to swim every day. (he doesn't do this now)
To contrast past and present situations:
عند مقارنة مواقف فى الماضى مع أخرى فى المضارع. (أو لم تعد صحيحة فى المضارع)
We used to live in a small flat in the city centre.
Examples:
l/you/he/she/we/they used to play tennis.
l/you/he/she/we/they didn't use to drink tea.
Where did you use to live?
Where did you use to live?
Common errors:
Where did you used to live? (use)
Note:
Use "used to" to refer to past habits. To refer to present habits use the present simple.
تستخدم used to للتعبير عن عادات فى الماضى للتعبير عن عادات فى الحاضر استخدم المضارع البسيط.

In questions and negative sentences, we use the infinitive form use (not used).
فى النفى والاستفهام استخدم المصدر "use" واحذر واياك واستخدام "used"

Present perfect simple and continuous
The present perfect always links the past with the present in some way.
Use the present perfect simple for:
actions which began in the past and are still continuing.
للتعبير عن حدث بدأ فى الماضى ولا زال مستمرا.
She's worked very hard this week.
actions which have happened recently.
حدث انتهى مؤخرا أو من وقت قصير.
We have just passed the test.
someone's experience.
للحديث عن تجربة شخص ما.كما لو قلت I have the experience of أو I have never the experience of ولاحظ انك لاتصف حدث معين.
He has always enjoyed fishing.
I think I have seen this movie before.

Present perfect continuous
Statements and questions:
l/you/we/they have (not) been working all day.
He/She has (not) been trying to phone you since yesterday afternoon.
Has he/she been revising for the test?
Yes, he/she has. C No, he/she hasn't.
Have I you we/they been running?
Yes, l/you/we/they have. C No, l/you/we/they haven't.
Use the present perfect continuous:
for uninterrupted activities leading up to the present.
الأحداث المستمرة (التى لم تنقطع) حتى الحاضر
I've been studying all day.
for activities that have happened regularly in the time leading up to the present.
الأنشطة التى حدثت بانتظام بدأت فى الماضى ومستمرة للحاضر.
It's been raining a lot recently.
I've been learning Greek for the last few months.
to express a present situation.
لتفسير سبب موقف (نتيجة) معينة فى الحاضر.
I've been running - that's why I'm so tired.
Common error:
I'm studying English for nine years. (have been studying)
To refer to an activity that started in the past and still continues, use the present perfect continuous.
للتعبير عن نشاط بدا فى الماضى ومازال مستمرا حتى الحاضر نستخدم المضارع التام المستمر وليس المضارع المستمر.
Question tags
A question tag is a short question which is added to a sentence, usually in conversations.
Sentence

Question tag
It was very interesting, wasn't it?
Pesticides can be poisonous, can't they?
We should leave that discussion until another day, shouldn't we?
We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, did we?
We havent talked about the subject of genetically modified crops yet, have we?
You read that newspaper article about farming, didn't you?

Notes:
Negative question tags follow affirmative verbs in the main sentence.
السؤال المذيل المنفى يتبع فعل مثبت فى الجملة الرئيسية.
Affirmative question tags follow negative verbs in the main sentence.
السؤال المذيل المثبت يتبع فعل منفى فى الجملة الرئيسة.
Question tags have the same subject as the main verbs.
السؤال المذيل بحتوى على نفس فاعل الجملة الرئيسة(ولاحظ لابد وان يكون ضمير لا اسما)
In question tags, the verb comes before the subject.
فى السؤال المذيل الفعل المساعد يأتى دائما قبل الفاعل.
Question tags which follow in the simple present or simple past use an auxiliary verb. (see sentence 6).
إذا كانت الجملة فى زمن المضارع البسيط أو الماضى البسيط استخدم do, does or did
Question tags can be used for two purposes:
هناك غرضين لاستخدام السؤال المذيل.
to check information you think is correct. or to ask for another person's agreement. In this case, the speaker's voice goes down on the question tag.
للتأكد إذا كانت المعلومة صحيحة ام لا أو إذا رغبت أن تطلب موافقة الشخص الآخر على رأيك وفى هذه الحالة ينخفض الصوت عند نطقك للسؤال المذيل.
to find information you are not sure of. This is a real question, so the speaker's voice goes up at the question tag. 
للحصول على معلومة انت لست متأكدا منها وبالتالى فهو سؤال حقيقى لذلك يرتفع الصوت عكس الحالة الأولى.
Common errors
We didn't need chemical fertilisers then, didn't we? (did we?)
Use affirmative question tags with negative verbs.
We haven't talked about genetically modified crops yet, have they? (have we?)
The subject of the question tag is always the same as the subject of the main verb.
You read that newspaper article about farming, haven't you? (didn't you?)
The tense of the question tag is always the same as the tense of the main verb.

Past perfect simple and continuous
Past perfect
Use the past perfect to show which of two actions or events happened first. See also
He looked tired yesterday because he'd slept badly the night before.
Past perfect continuous
I/they had (not) been waiting for an hour when the train arrived.
What had he been doing before the accident happened?
Had you been waiting long before he arrived?
Yes, we had. C No, we hadn't.
Use the past perfect continuous:
to describe something that happened for a length of time before another action in the past.
عند وصف حدث (استمر لفترة من الوقت) قبل حدث آخر.
We'd been waiting for three hours before our plane took off.
to give a reason for an event in the past.
لإعطاء سبب (تفسير) لحدث آخر فى الماضى.
There were floods because it had been raining for three days.
Pronouns and reflexive pronouns

Subject I you he she it we they
˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜
Object me you him her it us them
˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜
Possessive mine yours his hers –––– ours theirs
˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜
Reflexive myself yourself
yourselves himself herself itself ourselves themselves
Use reflexive pronouns:
when the subject and object of a sentence are the same.
تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية اذا كان الفاعل والمفعول نفس الشخص.
Sarah fell over, but she didn't hurt herself.
for emphasis.
تستخدم أيضا للتاكيد.
We did all the work ourselves. Nobody did it for us.
Common error
I showered myself and dressed myself in ten minutes.
We do not normally use reflexive pronouns after wash, shower, dress.
لا تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية مع أفعال مثل wash shower and dress

Conditional sentences
Zero conditional
If + present simple + present simple:
If I feel tired, I go to bed.
I go to bed if I feel tired.
Note:
In conditional sentences of all kinds, the if clause can be the first or second part of the sentence.
Use zero conditional sentences:
to describe actions or things which are usually true. In these sentences:
تستخدم الحالة الصفرية عندما نصف حدث أو شئ دائما حقيقى أو صحيح وتساوى when :
if = when. If I feel thirsty, I drink water.
First conditional
If + present simple + will + infinitive
If we don't go now, we won't catch the bus.
Use first conditional sentences:
to refer to an action which we think is possible in the future.
تستخدم الحالة الأولى عندما نشير إلى حدث يمكن (من المحتمل) حدوثه فى المستقبل.
If I pass the exam, I'll be very happy.
Second conditional
If + past simple + would + infinitive
If you worked harder, you would get higher marks.
Use second conditional sentences:
to refer to an action which we think will probably not happen in the future.
الحالة الثانية تشير إلى حدث غير محتمل حدوثه فى المستقبل.
If people lived on the moon, they would be tired and bored.
Common error
If would have more time, I would visit my friends in Dubai. (had)
Third conditional
If + past perfect + would have + past participle
If he had left on time, he wouldn't have missed the bus (but he did miss it).
Use third conditional sentences:
to refer to an imagined action in the past.
تشير إلى حدث تخيلى فى الماضى (عكسه قد حدث فى الماضى) مستحيل الحدوث.
If you had got the job, you would have lived in Luxor (but you didn't get the job so you don't). 
Common error:
If you would have worked harder, you would have passed the test. (had)

Prepositions
Prepositions after nouns
What was the reason for the accident?
There has been an increase in the number of tourists going to Luxor.
Many people are worried about the problem of climate change.
The earthquake caused damage to many houses.
My uncle worked for the reform of education.
We never discovered the cause of the accident.
I don't understand the popularity of Rider Haggard's stories.
What is the answer to the problem of climate change?

Prepositions after adjectives
He is brilliant/good/bad at writing exciting stories.
Shakespeare was most famous for his plays.
He was keen on writing, even as a boy.
I'd be interested in learning more about Rider Haggard.
I was angry/annoyed/disappointed with him for being late.
I'm proud of my brother - he has done so well at school.
My little brother is afraid/frightened/terrified of birds.
Are you worried/excited/happy about going to China?
I'm sorry about forgetting to phone you.
Football has always been popular with young boys.
Prepositions after verbs
Where can I find out about climate change?
My brother is going to apply for a job at the university.
The explorers were looking for diamonds.
He helped in the reform of education.
Until I read King Solomon's Mines, I'd never heard of Rider Haggard.
I think that car belongs to one of our teachers.
He died of heart disease.

Passive verbs
Passive verbs are formed from:
the verb be (in the tense of the active verb) + the past participle of a verb
نستخدم v. to be فى نفس زمن الفعل فى الجملة الأصلية (المبنية للمعلوم)
The object of an active verb is used as the subject of the passive verb.
مفعول الفعل يصبح فاعلا فى المبنى للمجهول.
Example:
Jonathan Swift wrote Gulliver's Travels. (Active)
Gulliver's Travels was written by Jonathan Swift. (Passive)

The subject of an active verb is the agent of the passive verb and is introduced by the preposition by. Passive sentences do not always include an agent.
الفاعل الحقسقى يصبح مفعولا ويسبق بحرف الجر by وليست كل الجمل فى المبنى للمجهول تحتوى على الفاعل الحقيقى.
We sold the car for $500. (Active)
The car was sold for $500 (by us). (Passive)

Intransitive verbs (which never have an object) cannot be used in the passive.
الأفعال اللازمة التى لاتأتى بعدها مفعول بالطبع لا تحول.
She walked for three hours.
(No passive form is possible as walk is an intransitive verb.)
Formation:
Present simple: Houses are designed to be warm in winter and cool in summer.
Present continuous: Our car is being repaired this week.
Past simple: These flats were built in 1965.
Past continuous: The car was being driven too fast.
Present perfect: We've been invited to a party at the weekend.
Past perfect: The students had been warned about being late for school.
Future with will: I expect we'll be told where to go.

Use the passive:
to show what you are more interested in.
لنوضح أيهما أهم :
My friend painted this picture last year. (You are interested in the friend.)
This picture was painted by my friend last year. (You are interested in the picture.)
when you do not know, or it does not matter, who did the action.
عندما لا نعرف من قام بالفعل أو عندما لا يهم أن نذكر من قام بالفعل.
Two books have been taken from our classroom.
(We do not know who took them.)
Before roads were built across the desert, few visitors came to this town.
(It does not matter who built the roads.)
when it is obvious who did the action.
عندما يكون من الواضح معرفة الفاعل.
They were arrested at the airport. (Only police officers can arrest people.)
Passive expressions starting with It...
It is known that people have lived in the desert for thousands of years.
= We know that people have lived in the desert for thousands of years. (Less formal expressions)
It is said that the building of the Temple of Edfu was started in 237 BC.
People say that the building of the Temple of Edfu was started in 237 BC. (Less formal expressions)

It is believed that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago.
= We believe that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago. (Less formal expressions)
must, have to, need to
must/mustn't
Use must/mustn't + infinitive to express strong feelings or wishes:
للتعبير عن رغبة أو شعور قوى (داخلى)
You mustn't smoke in hospitals. (a rule)
You must come and see us at the weekend. (a warm invitation)
You must wash your hands before you eat. (strong advice)
We must buy souvenirs for our friends here. (a strong reminder to ourselves) تذكرة قوية لأنفسنا
Common errors
I must to buy some bread. Do not use to with the infinitive after must.
He must go to hospital yesterday. (had to)
If we want to talk about past obligations, we use had to, not must.

have to/don't have to
Use have to/don't have to + infinitive when :
we cannot choose whether to do something or not.
You can use have to in all the verb tenses.
It is also used for the future and past forms of must.
تستخدم have to بدلا من must وتستخدم had to كماضى من must و will have to كمستقبل من must .
My brother and I have to go to school every day.
My grandfather had to work six days a week.
The flight is at six in the morning, so we'll have to get up very early.
need to/don't need to
Use need to/don't need to to refer to actions that are or are not necessary. It is very similar in meaning to have to/don't have to:
I have no money - I need to get some from my bank.
When you're on holiday, you don't need to go to bed early
Note
You can sometimes use have got to instead of have to, e.g.:
We've got to give in our homework tomorrow.
You can use needn't + infinitive without to instead of don't need to.:
When you're on holiday, you needn't get up early.

Passive verbs
The infinitive form of passive verbs
Be / to be + p.p.
Because of technology, larger and larger buildings can be built in modern cities.
He went to university to be trained as a doctor.
The Great Wall of China could be seen from space.
Modal verbs
can/could for ability/ possibility and permission
Possibility
This use of can is usually a generalization or a supposition
تستخدم can للتعبير عن احتمال عام.
Some cars can use electricity. (This is possible.)
He can't be Egyptian. His parents are English. (This is not possible.)
could is used to express possibility in the past present or future.
يمكن استخدام could للتعبير عن الاحتمال فى المستقبل.
We could ban cars from cities. (This would be possible if we wanted it.)

Ability
تستخدم can للتعبير عن القدرة فى المضارع.
I can see very well without glasses. (I have this ability.)
We can solve this problem. (We have the ability to solve this problem./lt is possible for us to solve it.)
Use could/couldn't for general past abilities:
تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة عامة فى الماضى.
I could swim at the age of six.
I couldn't ride a bicycle until the age of nine.
Do not use could for a particular past ability. Instead, use was able to/managed to/succeeded in + -ing:
لا تستخدم could للتعبير عن قدرة خاصة فى الماضى ولكن نستخدم بدلا منها :
was / were able to + المصدر
managed to + المصدر
succeeded in + -ing.
I took my car to the garage this morning, where one of the mechanics was able to/managed to start it. a momentary or one-time ability.
I'd been trying to send that e-mail all day. Finally, I succeeded in sending it at six o'clock in the evening. a momentary or one-time ability.
Common errors
Finally, I could send the e-mail at six o'clock. (managed to – was able to)
Do not use could to refer to a particular past ability.

Permission
Use can or can't for present permission:
In some countries, you can drive at the age of 17. (The law says this is permitted.)
In some cities, people can't use their cars every day. (This is not permitted/it is against the law.)
Use could/couldn't to refer to past permission:
إذن أو تصريح فى الماضى
In the past, people could drive a car without passing a driving test.

Use can/could to refer to future permission:
إذن أو تصريح فى المستقبل.
You can/could borrow my car tomorrow.

You can also use may for present or future permission. This is polite or formal.
تستخدم may بدلا من can / could لإعطاء طلب أو إذن بطريقة مهذبة أو بطريقة رسمية.
You may borrow my car tomorrow if you like.
May I use your phone, please ?





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اقوى ملزمة قواعد للصف الثانى الثانوى 2011 :: تعاليق

مُساهمة في 13.01.11 17:50 من طرف mtiger

والله جميله

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مُساهمة في 03.02.11 13:42 من طرف mahmad.ryad

مشكورين

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مُساهمة في 16.04.11 21:48 من طرف diamond girl

thanks

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