لغة انجليزية 1 ثانوي - شرح Unit 7 : Health and Safety - الترم الاول

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16122014

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. لغة انجليزية 1 ثانوي - شرح Unit 7 : Health and Safety - الترم الاول




Unit 7                                                 Health and Safety                              


Vocabulary

health                                       الصحة             poster                              ملصق / إعلان
healthy                                       صحى bacteria                                     بكتيريا
safety                              أمان / سلامة domestic cats             قطط أليفة (منزلية)
safe                                             آمن natural conditions              ظروف طبيعية
caller                   شخص يتصل بالتليفون simple                                       بسيط
bird flu                             أنفلونزا الطيور simply                                    ببساطة
flu                                           أنفلونزا patient                                       مريض
kill                                              يقتل multiply                                      يتكاثر
disease                                       مرض recent                                        حديث
area                                          منطقة rules                                          قواعد
dangerous                                  خطير laws                                          قوانين
move                                         يتحرك motorway                           طريق سريع
outbreak              تفشى / انتشار (مرض) practise                                      يمارس
wild animals                      حيوانات برية gym                              صالة ألعاب رياضية
wild birds                              طيور برية limit                                            يحدد
farm birds                         طيور المزارع amount                                      كمية
humans                                     البشر cycle                                   يركب دراجة
infected birds            طيور مصابة بالعدوى park                                    يركن سيارة
touch                                         يلمس pick                                           يقطف
wash                                        يغسل lake                                           بحيرة
subject                                     موضوع pond                                       بركة ماء
worry                                          يقلق canal                                           قناة
towards                                       تجاه hit                                              يضرب
unusual                                غير عادى signs                                         علامات
The Middle East              الشرق الأوسط attract                                       يجذب
disappear                                 يختفى germs                                       جراثيم                  
disappearance                            اختفاء living thing                           كائن حى
more often     أكثر (مرات أكثر من المعتاد) infection                          عدوى / إصابة
chickens                                      فراخ infected                  مصاب بعدوى / ملوث
protect                                       يحمى public         عام (يخص الناس بصفة عامة)
alert                                          تحذير stomach                                      معدة
illness                                        مرض digest                                        يهضم
serious                                      خطير fly                                              ذبابة
medical condition                    حالة طبية flies                                             ذباب
common disease                  مرض شائع insects                                    حشرات
meal                                           وجبة poisonous                                   سام
wound                                         جرح poison                                        السم
harmful                                        ضار contain                              يحتوى على
(1)
cleanliness                               النظافة tin                                             علبة
hygiene                      النظافة الشخصية damaged                                     تالف
hygienic                                     صحى exercise                          تدريبات رياضية
unhygienic                            غير صحى restaurant                                   مطعم
sanitation                         النظافة العامة waiter                                     جرسون
sanitary                           صحى / نظيف menu                                قائمة الطعام
equip                              يجهز بالمعدات sink                  حوض (المطبخ / الحمام)
equipment                                معدات kettle                                 غلاية الشاى
hospital staff هيئة العاملين بالمستشفى electrical items                  أجهزة كهربية
bathe                                       يستحم follow                                           يتبع
avoid                         يتجنب / يتحاشى improve                                    يحسن
weather                                   الطقس disappointed             محبط / خائب الأمل
dirt                                            قذارة spread                             ينتشر / ينشر
dirty                                             قذر seat belt                              حزام الأمان
pieces of food                     فتات الطعام ward                    عنبر (فى المستشفى)
cover                                         يغطى advertisement                             إعلان
boil                                             يغلى criticize                                        ينتقد
tap water                           مياه الصنبور neglect                                      يهمل


Idioms & Expressions


catch bird flu            يصاب بأنفلونزا الطيور covered with                           مغطى بـ
protect from                           يحمى من catch an infection              يصاب بالعدوى
keep away from                      يبتعد عن pass … to                          ينقل .... إلى
worried about                        قلق على careful about          حذر من / محترس من
catch a disease                    يصاب بمرض make sure                                    يتأكد
be infected with               يصاب بالعدوى lying around                متناثرة من حولك
prevent (stop) from                 يمنع من covered up                                مغطى
an expert on / in                     خبير فى smell bad                        ذو رائحة كريهة
in fact                               فى الحقيقة have a bath                           يأخذ حمام
under control                   تحت السيطرة look after                                يعتنى بـ
become ill                                   يمرض go wrong                              تسير خطأ
land on food                تنزل على الطعام from a very early age من سن مبكرة جد
get fit                            يصبح لائق بدنيا set a good example يضرب مثالا يحتذى به
put on weight                 يزداد فى الوزن on the skin                          على الجلد
in a hurry    متعجل / على عجلة من أمره become infected        يصبح ملوثا بالجراثيم
play music                      يعزف موسيقى throw away                                يرمى
make noise                       يحدث ضوضاء cut on the finger             جرح فى الإصبع
Keep safe                                يظل آمنا in contact with                          محتك بـ
get infected                      يصاب بالعدوى keep food                          يحفظ الطعام
pass from …… to         ينتقل من .... إلى drive on a road     يقود سيارة على طريق

(2)
Definitions

 disease:       مرض  
              An illness or serious medical condition.
 flu:         أنفلونزا
              A common disease which is like a bad cold but is more serious.
 infected:         معدي
              Someone who is infected with a disease has a disease; a wound that is infected has harmful bacteria in it which prevent it from getting better.
 outbreak:    تفشى / انتشار
              When something bad like a serious disease or war starts.
 wild:             برى
              Animals and plants live or grow in natural conditions and are not looked after by people on farms, in gardens, etc.
 attract:      يجذب
              If someone attracts people or things it makes them move towards it.
 germ:       جرثومة
              A very small living thing that can make you ill.
 infection:      إصابة / عدوى
              A disease in a part of your body that is caused by bacteria or a virus.
 public:       عام    
              Relating to all the ordinary people in a country or area.
 stomach:        المعدة
              The part of your body where food is digested.
 cleanliness:      النظافة
              Being clean.
 fly:         ذبابة
              A common kind of insect.
 poisonous:    سام
              Containing something that can kill you or make you ill.
 dirty:          قذر
              Not clean.



Language Notes

 get + شخص  + to + مصدر :  يقنع
    - I got him to join the school team.

 It's + adj. + for + noun اسم / pronoun ضمير:
   - It's difficult for him to pass the driving test.

 By + ما يدل على الماضى + past perfect ماضى تام:
   - By last Friday he had spent all his money.
(3)
 make + مفعول  + مصدر:     يجعل
    - The teacher made us do the homework again.

 promise + to + مصدر:   يعد
    - My father promised to buy me a mobile.

 فاعل + can يستطيع+ مصدر : It's possible for + اسم / ضمير + to + مصدر
    - It's possible for you to buy a ticket in advance.  (can)
      You can buy a ticket in advance.



Tapescript, Reading & Critical thinking

Health and safety
 Bird Flu:
    Bird flu is a subject that is worrying many people. Human can catch bird flu. By 2007 more than 300 people had caught the disease. But only about half of these people died. But we shouldn’t worry - it is very unusual for humans to catch this disease. They have to be very near infected birds. It is extremely unusual for humans to catch bird flu from other humans.
    Experts believe the recent outbreak of bird flu started in 2003 in Asia. 100 million birds were killed to try to stop the disease, but by 2005 to 2006, there were new outbreaks in Africa, the Middle East and Europe. The disease has not disappeared. It’s still with us, but it's under control.
    All kinds of wild birds as well as farm birds, like chickens and other animals, like cats, can catch bird flu.
    What should people do to protect themselves? Most people who catch bird flu live very near to birds which have the disease. If you have touched an infected bird, you must wash very well. If you think you may have the disease, you must see your doctor.

 How to avoid illness:
    Cleanliness is extremely important in protecting us from infections. Hygiene (your own cleanliness) and sanitation (public cleanliness) are both important.
    Many infections of the stomach pass from one person to another because of bad sanitation and hygiene. If a child has dirty hands, they will be covered with millions of germs which we cannot see. If that child gives sweets to another child, some of those germs will be passed to the other child. When this child eats the sweet, he or she will eat some of the germs and may become ill. The child's mother may say that it is because her child ate the sweet, but it is really because her child ate the other child's germs.
   These are some of the rules of hygiene. You should always wash your hands before a meal. You should bathe more often in hot weather or when you have been running or been to the gym.
(4)
   You should also be very careful about the food you eat and the water you drink. Make sure that flies and other insects do not land on your food. Insects eat dirt and there are germs in dirt. If insects land on your food, they may pass their germs on to you. You must not leave pieces of food or dirty dishes lying around, because they will attract flies. You can protect food from flies and germs by covering it. You should always boil tap water before you drink it.
    Finally, you must never eat food that smells bad because it may be poisonous.  Do not eat food from a tin if the tin is damaged; the food will probably be bad.

 Our son's hospital not clean, says family:
    A young patient is ill in hospital after a cut on his finger became infected. The boy's family said that their son's bed was not very clean. Doctors and nurses looking after the boy said they were very disappointed by the news. They promised to clean the hospital and equip it properly.

Questions & answers:

1- What do you know about bird flu?
- It is a serious and infectious disease that birds, animals and people can catch.

2- Where did bird flu begin in 2003?
- In Asia.

3- What kinds of birds can catch bird flu?
- All kinds of birds as well as farm birds ,like chickens, can catch bird flu.

4- Can humans catch bird flu?
- Yes, they can.

5- What must you do if you come in contact with a bird infected with bird flu?
- I must wash my hands immediately.

6- What must you do if you have touched an infected bird?
- I must wash my hands immediately.

7- How can people protect themselves from bird flu?
- They must keep away from infected birds. If they have touched an infected bird, they must wash very well. If they think they have the disease, they must see the doctor.

8- Why is cleanliness important?
- It protects us from infections.

9- What is the difference in meaning between hygiene and sanitation?
- Hygiene is your own cleanliness but sanitation is public cleanliness.

10- How do infections of the stomach pass from one child to another?
      - By a child with dirty hands passing germs to other children or to food.
(5)
11- How do some stomach problems begin?
       - By a child with dirty hands passing germs to other children or to food.

12- What should you always do before a meal?
- I should always wash my hands.

13- Why should you wash your hands before a meal?
- My hands may be covered with germs.

14- How often should you bathe or wash?
      - You should always wash your hands before a meal and bathe more often in hot weather or after exercise.

15- Why is it dangerous if a child has dirty hands?
- Because the child can pass germs to other children.

16- When a child takes a sweet from a friend, can the sweet make the child ill?
- No, it is not the sweet but the germs from dirty hands.

17- Why mustn't you leave dirty dishes lying around?
- Because flies or insects may land on them and pass their germs on to you.

18- How you should keep food?
- You should keep it clean and covered up.

19- Why is it so important to follow rules of hygiene?
- In order to look after your own health and so that you don't spread germs and diseases to other people.

20- What are the rules of hygiene that we have to follow?
- You should always wash your hands before a meal.
- You should bathe more often in hot weather or after exercise
- You should keep food clean and covered up.
- You must not leave pieces of food or dirty dishes lying around.
- You should always boil tap water before you drink it.
        - You must never eat food that smells bad because it may be poisonous.
        -  Do not eat food from a tin if the tin is damaged because it might be bad.

21- What can go wrong if people don't follow rules of hygiene?
- They can become ill themselves and spread disease to others.

22- Why should you bathe more often in hot weather?
   - Because people get hot in hot weather. This makes it easier for germs to multiply on the skin.

23- How can you make sure water is safe to drink?
   - By boiling it before drinking it.

24- Why should we boil tap water before we drink it?
- To kill bacteria and germs.
(6)
25- Why shouldn't you eat food that smells bad?
- Because it might be poisonous.

26- What does a damaged tin of food tell you?
      - It tells me that the food inside is probably bad.

27- How can parents make sure that their children learn rules of hygiene?
- By teaching them the rules from a very early age.
- by setting a good example themselves.

28- How do you think that we can make sure that children wash their hands?
- We should tell them as often as possible.
- We should explain what may happen if they don't wash.

29- What do you think you should do if you are not sure whether the food is bad or not?
- I shouldn't eat it .
- I should throw it away.

30- How do you think hospitals should be?
- They should be clean, hygienic and well-equipped.

31- What should or shouldn't hospital workers do?
- They should keep the wards clean and healthy.
- They should wash their hands frequently.
- They should ask visitors to wash their hands before the visit.
- They shouldn't allow visitors to bring in food without being checked.

32- Why is it important to keep public places clean and healthy?
- So that people don't get infected and become ill.

@ Choose the correct answer:
1- If you eat too many sweets, you'll (put-put away-put on-put down) weight.
2- The cut on his leg is getting worse: it is dirty and has become (infected-infection-infection-healthy).
3- (Hygiene-Sanitation-Cleanliness-Flu) is an illness that birds, people and other animals can catch.
4- Lions and elephants are examples of (wild-domestic-tame-farm) animals.
5- Cleanliness protects us from (infect-infectious-infects-infections).
6- Infections can (pass-walk-run-jump) very quickly from one person to another.
7- A fly is a common kid of (bird-human-insect-flu).
8- There are rules of (infection-hygiene-pollution-disease) that we should follow to avoid danger.
9- Personal (cleanliness-clean-cleaner-cleans) is important if we want to stay healthy.
10- Washing can stop people from (making-catching-taking-becoming) infections.
(7)
11- Food that smells (good-well-badly-bad) may be poisonous.
12- Many infections of the stomach pass (from-by-with-of) one person to another because of bad sanitation and hygiene.
13- Dr Mark is an expert (at-with-on-about) bird flu.
14- By 2007 more than 300 people (had caught-were catching-have caught- caught) bird flu.
15- It is extremely unusual (at-for-to-about) humans to catch bird flu from other humans.
16- By 2005 to 2006, there were new (outbreaks-breakout-diseases-infections) in Africa, the Middle East and Europe.
17- Experts believe bird flu is (on-at-below-under) control.
18- Cleanliness is extremely important in (predicting-protecting-providing-preventing) us from infections.
19- If a child has dirty hands, they will be covered (by-over-on-with) germs which we cannot see.
20- You should always wash your hands (during-after-while-before) a meal.
21- You should bathe more often in (cold-warm-hot-cool) weather or after exercise.
22- You should be very (careless-careful-care-cared) about the food you eat.
23- If insects land (on-in-at-with) your food, they may pass their germs on to you.
24- If you leave pieces of food or dirty dishes lying around, they will (attract-attack-contact-contract) flies.
25- We can protect food (from-with-by-of) flies and germs by covering it.
26- You must never eat food that smells bad because it may be (good-tasty-expensive-poisonous).
27- A young patient is ill in hospital after a cut on his finger became (infected-infect-infection -infectious).
28- Doctors and nurses were very (disappoint-disappointment-disappointed-disappointing) by the news.
29- The hotel staff promised to clean the hospital and (ready-equip-do-make) it properly.
30- Most people who (take-catch-eat-drink) bird flu live very near to birds which have the disease.

@ Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- It's possible to get stamps from the local newsagent. (can)
2- Father said to me, "I'll buy you a mobile if you get full marks." (promised)
3- Humans can catch bird flu.  (possible)
4- Catching bird flu is unusual.  (It's)





(8)
Language Focus

Modals of obligation and necessity (1)
الأفعال الناقصة التى تعبر عن الإلزام و الضرورة (1)

 should / ought to::
1- نستخدم should / shouldn't + inf.  
أ‌- لتقديم اقتراحات
- You should play tennis – you'd enjoy it.
- You should buy Ahmed a new CD.

ب‌- للنصيحة (advice)
-You shouldn't eat crisps – they're bad for your health.
- You’ve got a nasty cough. You shouldn’t smoke.
2- كما نستخدم ought / ought not to + inf.  لإعطاء النصيحة
- You ought to work harder.
- You ought not to eat crisps.
- This is a really good book. You ought to read it.
3- لاحظ أن should  ليست قوية مثل  must .
- You should stop smoking.
 = It would be a good idea.
- You must stop smoking.
 = It’s necessary to stop.
4- لا تستخدم ought to  كثيرا فى النفى و نستخدم  should  بدلا منها.
- You shouldn’t drive. You’re too tired.

 must / mustn’t +  مصدر
1- نستخدم  must / mustn't + inf.  :
 أ- للتعبير عن قاعدة أو قانون
- You mustn't smoke in hospitals.
 ب- للتعبير عن نصيحة قوية
- You must wash your hands before you eat.
2- أحيانا نستخدم mustn't  بمعنى ممنوع أو غير مسموح كما تعنى أن هناك قواعد و قوانين يجب إتباعها و المخالفة تعرضك للعقاب.
 mustn't = be not allowed to + غير مسموح بـ      مصدر
                be forbidden to +   ممنوع من             مصدر
                be prohibited / banned from + v. + ing  ممنوع من
- You mustn’t park here.
= You aren’t allowed to park here.
= You are forbidden to park here.
  = You are prohibited from parking here.
  = You are banned from parking here.


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@ Choose the correct answer:
1- You have an important test at school next week. You should (start-starting-started-to start) revising now.
2- You (shouldn't-can't-mustn't-should) always boil tap water before you drink it.
3- You (must-mustn't-ought to-shouldn't) eat any food that smells bad.
4- It's dangerous to drive so fast. You (should-mustn't-ought-shouldn't) drive more slowly.
5- If you have touched an infected bird, you (shouldn't-must-can't-could) wash very well.
6- You (shouldn’t-mustn’t-should-ought to) drive. You’re too tired.
7- This is a really good book. You (ought to-must-may-might) read it.
8- You (mustn’t-needn’t-don’t have to-won’t) park here. It says a “No Parking area.
9- You (mustn't-shouldn't-oughtn't-must) eat crisps – they're bad for your health.
10- You (mustn't-ought-shouldn't-must) throw away food if you think it is bad or poisonous.

@ Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- I advise you not to eat so many sweets.  (shouldn't)

2- I advise you to go the gym more often to keep fit. (should)

3- You aren't allowed to drive at more than 110 kph on the motorway. (mustn't)

4- It’s inadvisable to take medicine without asking your doctor. (shouldn’t)

5- It’s necessary for us to be economical. (must)

6- You mustn’t park here. (allowed)

7- You mustn’t smoke in the theatre.  (Smoking)

8- Motor cars mustn’t drive in the town center.  (prohibited)

9- It would be a good idea to read a lot in your free time. (should)

10- I advise you not to eat sweets between meals.  (oughtn’t)

11- You mustn't smoke in hospitals.  (allowed)





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Test

A) Language Functions

1- Finish the following dialogue.
    Tom Jones is not feeling well, so he has decided to go to the doctor.
Tom    : Good morning, doctor.
Doctor: Good morning, Mr. Jones. ………………………………………..?
Tom   : Well, doctor, I have difficulty in breathing.
Doctor: Tell me, Mr. Jones, ………………………………………………….?
Tom   : Well. Yes, I do.
Doctor: …………………………………………………………………?
Tom   : I used to smoke 60 cigarettes a day, but now I smoke 40.
Doctor: Well, the only advice …………………………………………………… .
Tom   : Ok, doctor. I’ll do my best. Thank you very much.

2- Write what you would say in each of the following situations:
1- A friend raises chickens and wants to know how to prevent getting bird flu.
2- You are visiting someone in hospital when you see another visitor smoking.
3- One of your friends is getting too fat. He's asking for your advice.
4- Your teacher asks you what you should do before a meal.

B) Vocabulary and Structure

3- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- "Disease" means a/an …………………… or serious medical condition.
a) cure                b) suffering           c) illness            d) examination
2- An important rule of personal …………….. is to wash your hands before eating .
a) sanitation        b) hygiene             c) infection         d) germs
3- You should ……………… water before you drink it.
a) boiling            b) to boil                c) boil               d) boils
4- If you do exercise regularly, you won't ……………… weight.
a) put off             b) put away            c) put down      d) put on
5- My brother ……………….. an injection while he was on holiday.
a) caught             b) did                    c) found           d) picked
6- Have you heard? There's a new ………………… of bird flu in China.
a) breakout          b) infection             c) outbreak      d) disease
7- ……………… is very important in a hospital.
a) Clean               b) Cleanliness         c) Cleaned        d) Cleans
8- My grandfather has promised ……………… smoking next week.
a) stop                 b) stopping             c) stopped        d) to stop
9- Most people are worried …………….. bird flu.
a) with                 b) about                  c) out              d) on
10- You ………………… park here as there's a "No Parking" area .
a) should              b) must                   c) mustn't        d) needn't
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4- Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- You look very ill. I advise you to see a doctor at once.  (should)
2- It's a good idea to go the gym more often.  (ought to)
3- Don't eat food from a damaged tin; the food may be bad.   (mustn't)
4- It's a good idea to take exercise regularly.  (should)

5- Read the text below, then write the word which best fits each space:
           Cleanliness is extremely important in protecting us from infections. ………… (your own cleanliness) and …………………. (public cleanliness) are both important.
   …………………….. can pass from one child if children do not wash hands often. That is why you should always wash your hands before a ……………… and right after you come home. You should ………………… more often in hot weather or if you have been exercising. Never leave pieces of food lying around because they ……………….. flies.

C) Read Comprehension and Set Books

6- Read the following passage , then answer the questions:
      The work of Louis Pasteur is responsible more than any other factor عامل for the great strides خطوات made in medical science in conquering يقهر disease after his time. He discovered and proved that infectious diseases are caused by germs. Pasteur was born in France. He studied chemistry at school in Paris and at the Sorbonne. In 1867, he became a professor of chemistry in the Sorbonne. In 1850s his study of living things began. Out of his experiments came ideas, which he developed, into great contributions إسهامات  to the health of humanity البشرية.
      When the silkworm دودة الحرير farmers of southern France found their silkworms dying, they asked for Pasteur’s help. After making a number of tests, he found parasites  طفيلياتon the sick silkworms. He taught the farmers how to overcome يتغلب على them successfully. Pasteur showed how disease in animals such as cholera الكوليرا could be prevented and cured يعالج / يشفى.
      The pasteurization بسترة of milk is a process عملية by which the growth of germs in the milk is stopped. This has proved of untold value قيمة in saving the lives of many children. This process too was originated يبدأ by Pasteur. In honour of تكريما لـ his life work, the Pasteur Institute معهد was founded تأسس in Paris by the French government.

A) Answer the following questions:
1- Where did Pasteur come from?
2- Who were directly affected by Pasteur’s work?
3- How did Pasteur save the silk industry?
4- What does the word “process” in bold refer to?



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B) Choose the correct answer:
5- Pasteur made his discoveries by …………………………… .
a) studying chemistry in the Sorbonne.
b) making experiments on living things.
c) curing and preventing cholera in animals.
d) founding the Pasteur Institute.
6- Pasteur proved that………………cause infectious diseases.
a) germs               b) silkworms          
c) animals             d) farmers
7- Farmers could save the silk industry with the help of………….
a) parasites            b) cholera              
c) Pasteur              d) germs

7- Answer Only Four (4) of the following questions:
 1- Why is it so important to follow rules of hygiene?
 2- Why should you bather more often in hot weather?
 3- How should you keep food?
 4- What will happen if insects land on your food?
 5- Show the difference in meaning between hygiene and sanitation.
 6- Name some of the rules of hygiene.

D) The Novel

A) Answer the following questions:
    1) What was the writer's report to the police?   (I Never Forget a Face)
    2) What does the writer do for a living?           (I Never Forget a Face)
    3) What does the writer find it difficult to remember?
                                                                       (I Never Forget a Face)
    4) Does the writer like living in Bardfield? What reasons does he give?
                                                                       (I Never Forget a Face)

   B) Read the following quotation, then answer the questions:
    "Of course, this trouble with names has put me in difficulties from time to time."
                                                                        (I Never Forget a Face)
     1) Who was the speaker?
     2) How did the speaker's trouble with names put him in difficulties from time to time?
     3) How could the speaker overcome his trouble with names?

E) Writing

9- Write a paragraph of seven (7) sentences about:
           "What people should do to prevent illness"



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F) Translation

10- A) Translate into Arabic:
     1- Hospitals should be clean and well-equipped.
     2- You should always wash your hands before a meal.
      B) Translate into English:
هل تأكل طعاما صحيا كل يوم.

العلم والايمان


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