لغة انجليزية 1 ثانوي - شرح Unit15 Phobias - الترم الثاني

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16122014

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. لغة انجليزية 1 ثانوي - شرح Unit15 Phobias - الترم الثاني




Vocabulary
phobia                  خوف مرضى أو جنونى
fear                                   خوف / يخاف
dizzy                           دائخ / يشعر بدوار
illness                                         مرض
spiders                                      عناكب


worry                               القلق / يقلق
control          تحكم / سيطرة / يتحكم فى
panic                 هلع / ذعر / يشعر بالذعر
avoid                          يتجنب / يتحاشى
unreasonable       غير منطقى / لا مبرر له
balance                                       توازن
anxiety                                         قلق
behave                           يتصرف / يسلك
sensibly                                    بحكمة
doll                          عروسة / لعبة دمية

small spaces                      أماكن صغيرة
open spaces                     أماكن مفتوحة
poisonous                                    سام
bite / bit / bitten      يلدغ / يقرص / يقضم
cupboard                         دولاب المطبخ
tunnel                                          نفق
calm                                          هادئ
lift                               أسانسير / مصعد
stairs                                        سلالم
sports ground                    أرض الملعب
nightmare                                 كابوس
overcrowded                             مزدحم
toy                                               لعبة
relaxed                                 مسترخى
clear headed           هادئ / صافى الذهن
dark                                 مظلم / ظلام
light                                      نور / منير
injure                               يصيب / يجرح
lie                  يكذب / ينام / يقع (للمكان)
dusty                                          مترب
dust                                             تراب
affect                                    يؤثر على
irrational              غير مبرر / غير منطقى
session                                   جلسة  
situation                                     موقف
therapist                           طبيب نفسى
virtual                  افتراضي / شبه واقعى
treatment                                    علاج
treat                                          يعالج
extreme                            زائد / اضافى
height                                        ارتفاع
bridge                                       كوبرى
remain                              يبقى / يظل
relax                                     يسترخى
reasonable                   منطقى / معقول
purpose                            غرض / هدف
combination                  مجمل / مجموع
conditions                      ظروف / شروط
exist                                            يوجد
existence                                     وجود
therapy                              علاج نفسى
mental illness                      مرض عقلى
physical illness                  مرض جسدى
image                                         صورة
society                                     مجتمع
nervous                                    عصبى
appointment                     موعد / ميعاد
shop assistant                   بائع فى محل
criminal                                     مجرم
crime                                       جريمة
arrest                                 يقبض على
customer                                     زبون
pilot                                            طيار
passengers                                  ركاب
commonly                          أكثر شيوعا
exam phobia              خوف من الامتحان
disappoint                                   يحبط
disappointment           إحباط / خيبة أمل
questionnaire                         استبيان
last                                         يستمر
confidence                                   ثقة
confident                                    واثق
methods                                     طرق
details                                     تفاصيل
figures                                       أرقام
silence                          صمت / سكون
land                                          يهبط
motivate                      يحفز / يدفع الى
Idioms & Expressions
afraid of                                 خائف من
frightened of                        مرعوب من
grow up                               يكبر / ينمو
turn (spin) round      يدور حول / يلف حول
get over           يتغلب على / يشفى من  
recover from                        يشفى من
fear of                                   خوف من
feeling of                شعور بـ / احساس بـ
make sure                                   يتأكد
have a phobia about          لديه خوف من
be born with                             مولود بـ
take off يخلع الملابس / تقلع الطائرة / يزيل
dream about                              يحلم بـ
turn into                               يتحول الى
It doesn't matter                         لا يهم

get away from          يبتعد عن / يهرب من
on the underground                   بالمترو
full of                                      مملوء بـ
on the first floor            فى الطابق الأول
go up                                          يصعد
get away                           يهرب / يبتعد
come from                يأتى من / ينشأ من
worry about                            يقلق من
look like                                      يشبه
fall off his bicycle      يقع من على دراجته
get off             ينزل من (وسيلة مواصلات)
get on                                        يركب
break down               يتعطل / ينهار عصبياً
fall asleep                             يغلبه النوم
in control of                      مسيطر على
get close to                           يقترب من
pick … up                                    يلتقط

do a questionnaire           يجرى استبيان
suffer from                            يعانى من
go (get) into                 يدخل / يلتحق بـ
fail an exam             يفشل فى الامتحان
fly through clouds     يسافر عبر السحب
run away from                       يهرب من
Vocabulary Study

 Fear: the feeling you get when you are afraid or worried that something bad will happen.                                                         خوف (طبيعى)
 phobia: a strong, unreasonable fear of something.    خوف مرضى أو جنونى
 dizzy: feeling that you are losing your balance, for example, because you have been spinning round or you are ill.                       دائخ / يشعر بدوار
get over: feel better after a bad experience, or after being ill
       يتحسن / يشفى من    
 panic: a sudden strong feeling of fear or anxiety that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly.                  هلع / ذعر / يشعر بالذعر
 avoid: make sure that something bad does not happen. يتجنب / يتحاشى  
 affect: cause a change in someone or something, or to change the situation they are in.                                                                 يؤثر على  
 irrational: not reasonable.                                      غير منطقى / لا عقلانى
 session: a period of time used for a particular purpose.                      جلسة
 situation: the combination of all the things that are happening and all the conditions that exist at a particular time and place.            موقف
Therapist: someone whose job is to do a particular type of therapy (treatment of a mental or physical illness)                                طبيب نفسى
 virtual: when a computer makes you feel as though you are in a real situation.
    حقيقى

Confusable Words

 affect / effect:
    affect: (v) have an effect on             يؤثر على
      - The fire affected both buildings badly.
    effect: (noun)              تأثير
      - The fire had a bad effect on both buildings.

 cause / reason:
    cause of:  سبب  
     - The police are still trying to find the cause of the fire.
    reason for + noun / v. + ing: سبب  
      - I don't know the reason for his absence.
    reason why + فاعل  + فعل  ……….:   سبب
      - I don't know the reason why he is absent.

 used to / be used to:
 used to + inf. :     كان معتادا على (تستخدم للتعبير عن عادة فى الماضى)        
- He was in the habit of smoking when he was young.  (used to)
 He used to smoke when he was young.
(3)
 am/is/are + used to + v. + ing:
يعتاد على ( تستخدم للتعبير عن عادة مستمرة)
- He usually drinks coffee after lunch.  (is used to)
    He is used to drinking coffee after lunch.

 lose / miss:
   Ÿ lose:  يخسر    
      - The team played well, but lost the game.
      - He lost a lot of money at races.
   Ÿ miss:  يفتقد (شخص / مكان)  / يفوته (وسيلة مواصلات)
      - I miss my old friends very much.
      - He missed the 9:30 train.
 
 remember / remind:
   Ÿ remind:  يذكر  (يتذكر بواسطة شخص)    
- Remind me to post the letter.                
- He reminds me of his father.    
   Ÿ remember:       يتذكر من تلقاء نفسه  
       - She remembered to take medicine.

Language Notes

 like يحب / hate يكره + v. + ing:
   - I like playing chess.              - I hate watching terror films.

 make + مفعول  + مصدر أو صفة : يجعل    
   - The bad weather made us stay at home.
   - His success made his family happy.

 without + v. + ing:     بدون
    - He left without saying goodbye.

 It's possible for …… to + مصدر :  من الممكن لـ ...... أن    
    - It's possible for you to pay with a credit card.


Tapescript

Speaker 1: I used to have a phobia about spiders. My father was frightened of spiders, so my phobia must have come from him. I remember him telling me that many spiders are poisonous. I always thought that any spider I saw was going to bite me, so I avoided all of the places where I might find a spider. I hated opening cupboards because I might have found a spider in it. And I never visited old buildings that might have been their home.
(4)
Speaker 2: My mother says I loved dolls until I was about five, so fear of dolls can't have been a phobia I was born with. It just happened slowly, like an illness. When I was seven, one of my aunts tried to help me get over this fear. She brought me an old doll, then took off its hair to show me that it wasn't a real person. Of course this just made everything worse. For weeks after I had bad dreams about dolls. That was when my fear turned into a real phobia. Now, if I see a doll, I feel ill and dizzy. I must  get away from it.

Speaker 3: When I was fifteen, I was in London and I had to travel on the underground. The train was full of people. Everyone was talking or reading their newspapers, then the train stopped in a tunnel. Most people stayed quite calm, but I began to panic. I ran up and down the train crying and shouting. After about five minutes, the train started moving again, and I got out at the next station. Since then I haven't travelled on the underground. I don't like being in very small places — that must be why I have a phobia about lifts, too. In my last job I worked on the fourteenth floor of an office building, but I went up by the stairs, not the lift. I sometimes took the lift just to show myself that I could do it, but I didn't enjoy it.

Speaker 4: Going to the park and other open places can be terrible for me. I have a very strange feeling when I go to these places. The small streets near my home and small gardens aren't a problem, but a trip to a big open space like a park or a sports ground can be a nightmare. I hear my own voice saying, "I must get away!" I'm really afraid of open spaces.

Reading

Treatments for phobias
 
 Phobias are not just extreme fears-they are irrational fears. They can affect people's lives and make them frightened to do things which most people do without thinking. For example, if you have a fear of heights, you may drive 40 kilometres to avoid a high bridge.
The usual treatment is to slowly show the person who has the phobia what they fear. For example, a person with a spider phobia first thinks about a spider, then looks at photographs of spiders,' and finally looks at a real spider. The therapist who is giving the treatment remains calm and helps the patient to relax. The person with the phobia feels in control of the situation and, because of this, they do not panic. After a few sessions, they realise that the thing they are afraid of cannot hurt them.
 In another treatment, the therapist gets close to the spider and picks it up without showing any fear. This helps the patient to see that he or she has nothing to fear.

(5)
 Some phobias can be treated in a few sessions with the therapist. Some people with phobias need medicine to help them relax before treatment. Treatment can be done in groups where people with the same phobia are helped together. It is also possible to have treatment from a computer program, where the patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing he or she fears.

Critical Thinking

Exam Phobia

 It does not matter how clever you are or how hard you work, you have probably felt worried before an exam at some time in the past. Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer from exam phobia. Some people are so frightened of an exam they are going to take that they cannot remember important information when they are in the exam room. These students will probably get lower marks. Some students cannot even go into the exam room, and of course, they fail.
There are different reasons for this phobia. Exams are extremely important for all students. They are afraid of failing, because if they fail they will not get into a good university or find a good job. Also, students do not want to disappoint their parents. So what can students do if they suffer from exam phobia?
 Here is some advice from a teacher:
• Get lots of sleep. If you are tired, you will probably feel more worried.
• Eat healthy food. Lots of sweets and biscuits will not make you feel good.
• Believe in yourself. You must believe that you can succeed.    
  Remember to do your best and you will pass the test.

Questions & answers

1- How is a phobia different from a fear?
 - A phobia is stronger than a fear, and is irrational.

2- How can phobias affect people's lives?
 - They can make them frightened to do things which most people do without thinking.

3- What kinds of things are people commonly afraid of?
 - Heights, spiders, insects, mice, snakes, flying, the dark, etc.

4- What wouldn't the person with a fear of height do?
 - He wouldn't climb a tall tree or a mountain.

5- Why do you think a lot of people are afraid of spiders, but not of butterflies?
 - Because butterflies are beautiful, but spiders are ugly.  

(6)
6- What is the best treatment for people with phobias?
 - The best treatment is to slowly show the person who has the phobia what they fear.
 - Some people with phobias need medicine.
 - It is also possible to have treatment from a computer program, where the patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing he or she fears.

7- Why is it important for the patients with phobias to relax?
 - The treatment will not work if patients panic.

8- Why do some phobias need medicine?
 - To help them relax before treatment.

9- Why do you think it takes a few sessions for patients to realise they do not need to be afraid?
 - It takes time to build up their confidence in the therapist and the methods.

10- How can a computer programme used in treating some phobias ?
 - The patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing they fear .

11- Can being afraid of exams sometimes be useful? Why? Why not?
 - Yes, it motivates يحفز / يدفع  us to study.

12- How can a student's future change if they fail an exam?
 - Students might not get into the university they want to go to. They might not get the job they want to do.

13- Why is it important to sleep well before an exam?
 - You will probably worry more if you are tired.

14- What sort of information do you think students forget easily?
 - They may forget detailed facts and figures that they have learnt but
which they do not understand.

15- Why do some students not like exam rooms?
 - Exam rooms can be very large and full of hundreds of students.
 - Students sometimes find the silence in exam rooms difficult or strange.

16- What kind of food and drink must students have before an exam?
 - Students must eat healthy food such as fish, fruit and vegetables. They must drink lots of water or fresh juice.

 Choose the correct answer:
1- When I was younger, I often dreamt (about-from-of-with) tunnels.
2- Some children are frightened (about-from-of-with) the dark.
3- I don't like travelling on trains which are full (about-from-of-with) people.
4- My fear (about-from-of-with) parties came (about-from-of-with) my mother.
(7)
5- I've always been afraid (about-from-of-with) birds.
6- My brother was born (about-from-of-with) a fear (about-from-of-with) cats.
7- If you turn round many times, you may feel (dizzy-lazy-crazy-happy).
8- If you get (on-over-off-out) an illness, you recover from it.
9- If you worry so much that you lose control, you (panic-play-cry-shout).
10- If you (like-run-avoid-wait) something, you try not to see it, do it or go to it.
11- If you have a phobia, you feel very (fright-frightening-frighten-frightened) of something.
12- A (ball-doll-date-dart) is a toy which looks like a baby or a small person.
13- People who are frightened (at-about-from-of) open spaces do not like large spaces.
14- I don't like (be-being-was-were) in very small places.
15- I hate (open-to open-opens-opening) cupboards because I may find a spider in them.
16- If you have a fear of (heights-lights-sights-fights), you may drive 40 kilometres to avoid a high bridge.
17- We went on (a tour-an expedition-a voyage-flight) into the Amazon forest.
18- When I heard the news, I was (appointed-disappointed-appointment- disappointment).
19- The plane took (up – off – after – in) at seven in the morning.
20- My brother was born (with – of – from – at) a fear of cats.
21- Silence, the court is in (session – season – hold – attend).
22- She (remembered – reminded – witness – watched) to pay the bill.
23- They (made – did – had – arranged) a questionnaire to choose their leader.
24- What happened made my fear turn (over-up-into-on) a real phobia.
25- Phobias can (affect-effect-effective-affection) people's lives.
26- Some phobias can be treated in a few (sessions-gatherings-sections-seasons) with the therapist.
27- It is also possible (have-having-to have-had) treatment from a computer programme.
28- The patient is put into a (virtual-irrational-national-local) situation with the thing he or she fears.
29- Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer (of-with-at-from) exam phobia.
30- If you do your best, you will (succeed-cross-fail-pass) the test.
31- Someone with a fear of (spiders-exams-heights-dolls) would not climb a tall tree or a mountain.
32- Phobias are (irrational-rational-national-international) fears: there is no reason for the person to be so afraid.
33- The (therapy-therapist-pilot-architect) shows the patient that the situation they fear will not hurt them.
34- A police officer arrests (criminals-crimes-pilots-passengers) in society.
35- A shop assistant sells and serves things to (costumes-customers-waiters-customs) in shops.


(8)
 Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- Irrational phobias can affect people's lives.  (effect)
2- I don't know the reason for his failure.  (the reason why)
3- It is not strange for Hany to stay at home alone.  (is used to)
4- Ayman can study medicine abroad.  (possible)


Language Focus

Modals pf Possibility

Present: must / can't / might + inf.

Example The speaker thinks …….
- He must be English-he speaks English well. - He is definitely English because he speaks English well.
- He can't be Egyptian-he doesn't speak Arabic. - He is definitely not English.
- He might be French, but he is probably Italian. - It is possible that he is French.

Past: must / can't / might + have + pp

Example The speaker thinks …….
- I'm frightened of snakes. A snake must have frightened me when I was a child. - A snake definitely frightened me when I was a child.
- It's only 4 o'clock. The match can't have finished already. - The match definitely hasn't finished. (It's too early.)
- Azza wasn't at school yesterday. She might have had a doctor's appointment موعد. - It is possible that Azza had a doctor's appointment.

 Choose the correct answer:
1- The telephone rang, but I didn't hear it. I (can't have been-would have been-must have been-might have been) asleep.
2- You've only been in the laboratory for half an hour. You (can't have finished-must have finished-would have finished-finished) your experiment already.
3- Emad didn't take his keys with him. He (could have seen-could see-might see-can't have seen) them on the table.
4- This (may-can't-must-could) be his car. He's too poor to afford such an expensive car.
(9)
5- David isn't here. He (must-can-ought-should) have gone home to study for the test tomorrow.
6- Ahmed is a professor of Chemistry. He must (be-have been-have-had been) very clever at school.
7- Where is David? He (must be-can’t be-needn’t be-mustn’t be) at school. Classes begin at 8.
8- I'm absolutely sure! They (must arrive-could arrive-should have arrived-must have arrived) yesterday, I saw their ticket.
9- You (can’t be-must be-should be-would be) joking. I can’t possibly lend you that sum of money.
10- He looks happy. He (must-can't-may-might) have passed the exams.

 Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- I'm certain that he is a great painter.  (must)
2- I'm sure that he didn't fail the exam.   (can't)
3- That house was almost certainly built a few years ago. (must)
4- It is not possible that he caught the bus.  (couldn't)
5- There is a remote possibility that the operation will not work. (might)
6- I suppose he is the new English teacher.  (must)
7- I’m sure that he is at home.  (must)          
8- I’m sure he isn’t at home.   (can’t)              
9- I’m sure he was ill.   (must)                      
10- I’m sure he didn’t rob the bank.  (can’t)      
11- Perhaps he will buy a car.  (may)              
12- I’m not sure that he bought a car. (might)  
13- There’s a chance they’ll arrest him if he tries to leave the country.(might)
14- They were late. Perhaps they missed the nine o’clock train. (may)
15- Perhaps he was ill yesterday.             (may)
16- I'm sure that Ahmed isn't over forty. ( can't )
17- I think he is definitely a doctor. ( must )
18- I think he was ill. (  must )
19- I don't think he will come back. ( might )
20- I suppose it's possible the thief had a key. ( might )
21- It was impossible that he didn't hear the news. ( He )
22- I'm sure that Ahmed won the match yesterday. ( must )
23- I'm sure he has gone to bed because all lights are off.  (must)
24- I believe he definitely passed the driving test. (must)
25- I'm sure he didn't come to the party. (can't have)
26- I'm sure Alaa hasn't finished his homework. He only started it five minutes ago. (Alaa can't)




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Test

A) Language Functions

1- Finish the following dialogue between Samy and Hany who was absent from school yesterday.
Samy: Why were you absent yesterday?
Hany : …………………………………………………………………………….. .
Samy: ……………………………………………………………….…………… ?
Hany : Yes, I went to the doctor.
Samy: ……………………………………………………………………………….?
Hany: To take some pills and take rest for a week.
Samy: How are you now?
Hany: ……………………………………………………………………………. .

2- Write what you would say in each of the following situations:
1- You meet a foreigner who asks you to tell him the way to the citadel.
2- You have a phobia of spiders. A friend asks you when it began
3- Your friend asks you about the best treatment for people with phobias.
4- Your teacher asks you what difference is there between a phobia and a fear

B) Vocabulary and Structure

3- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- When he looks down from a high building, he feels ………………….
   a) dizzy                 b) irrational              c) virtual              d) luxury
2- I'm sorry to hear you're ill. I hope you get ……………. it soon.
   a) better                b) over                    c) on                    d) off
3- When she was young, she had a ……………… of the dark.
   a) session              b) panic                   c) frightened         d) fear
4- A ………………… helps patients with their treatment.
a) pilot                  b) therapist               c) phobia             d) criminal
5- Eating the right food …………………… health well.
a) affects               b) effect                    c) effective          d) affection
6- I’m not sure. He …………………….. have taken the book.
a) will                   b) must                     c) may                d) should
7- I can’t find my eyeglasses here. I ……………………… left them at home.
a) should have       b) will have                c) would have      d) must have
8- When he was young, he ………………… have a phobia about spiders.
a) uses to              b) used to                  c) is used to         d) used
9- She got the full mark on her exams. She …………… clever.
a) must be             b) must have              c) must have had   d) had
10- It ……………….. a bird. You must be mistaken
a) must be             b) can't be                  c) may be             d) might be
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4- Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- Tarek's really hungry. He probably didn't have enough breakfast.  (can't)
2- It's possible the thief stole the money. (might)
3- The house was certainly built before 2000.    (must)
4- I phoned Aly but he didn’t answer. I think he wasn’t at home.  (can't have)

5- Read the text below, then write the word which best fits each space:
            You have probably felt worried before an exam at some time in the past. Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer from exam (1)…………. Some people are so frightened of an (2)………….. they are going to take that they cannot remember important information when they are in the exam (3)…………. There are different (4) ………………... for this phobia. Exams are extremely important for all students. They are (5)……………… of failing, because if they fail they will not get into a good university or (6) ……………… a good job.
 
C) Read Comprehension and Set Books

6- Read the following passage , then answer the questions:
        Elizabeth Blackwell was born in England in 1821, and emigrated هاجرت to New York city when she was ten years old. One day she decided that she wanted to become a doctor. That was nearly impossible for a woman in the middle of the nineteenth century. After writing many letters seeking تبحث عن admission القبول to medical schools, she was finally accepted by a doctor in Philadelphia. So determined مصممة was she that she taught at school and gave music lessons to earn money for her tuition تعليم.
      In 1849, after graduation التخرج from medical school, she decided to further her education in Paris. She wanted to be a surgeon, but a serious eye infection forced her to give up the idea.
       Upon returning to the United States, she found it difficult to start her own practice تدريب / ممارسة because she was a woman. By 1857 Elizabeth and her sister, also a doctor, along with بالاضافة الى another female doctor, managed to open a new hospital, the first for women and children. Besides بالاضافة الى being the first female physician طبيب and founding تأسيس her own hospital, she also established أسست the first medical school for women.

A) Answer the following questions:
1- How did Elizabeth Blackwell earn money for her tuition?
2- How old was Elizabeth when she graduated from medical school?
3- Why couldn’t Elizabeth realize her dream of becoming a surgeon?
4- What are the “firsts” in the life of Elizabeth Blackwell?

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  B) Choose the correct answer:
1- Elizabeth Blackwell emigrated to New York City in ……………………. .
a) 1821                               b) 1831              
c)1849                                d)1857
2- The main obstacle عائق that almost destroyed Elizabeth’s chances for becoming a doctor was that ………………………. .
a) she was a woman  
b) she wrote too many letters
c) she couldn’t graduate from medical school
d) she couldn’t establish her hospital.
3- Elizabeth Blackwell went to a medical school in ……………………… .
a) Paris                             b) New York            
c) England                        d) Philadelphia

7- Answer Only Four (4) of the following questions:
1- What kinds of things are people commonly afraid of?
2- How is a phobia different from a fear?
3- Why do some students not like exam rooms?
4- Why do you think a lot of people are afraid of spiders, but not of butterflies?
5- What sort of information do you think students forget easily?
6- Why do you think it takes a few sessions for patients to realise they do not need to be afraid?

D) The Novel

A) Answer the following questions:
1- Mr Benting thought that the job he was offered in 1921 sounded boring, so why did he accept it?
2- What happens to Van Lutjens in the end?
3- Why did Van Lutjens take the diamonds to New York?
4- What was Benting's decision when the box fell into the sea?

B) Read the following quotation, then answer the questions:
"I must go down and look at my children."
1- Who says this to whom?
2- Who or what are these 'children'?
3- Where will the man go down to look at the children?

E) Writing

9- Write a paragraph of seven (7) sentences about:
           "Someone that you like"
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F) Translation

10- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- Egypt has made great progress in different fields of industry, education and modern technology.
2- The near future will witness great development in space tourism which will attract a lot of people.
B) Translate into English:
تبذل الدولة ما بوسعها لتطوير التعليم و انشاء المزيد من المدارس و الجامعات

العلم والايمان


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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