Grammer التعليمية

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

17092014

مُساهمة 

. Grammer التعليمية




Tenses الأزمنة

Present simple المضارع البسيط
Uses الاستخدام
It's used to expressتستخدم للتعبير عن  
1- habits عادات  
I walk to the bus stop every day.
  2- facts الحقائق  
The earth goes round the sun.
  3- repeated actionsالأحداث المتكررة في الوقت الحاضر
We often visit grandmother on Friday.
للطائرات\ القطارات\ لمؤتمرات  Fixed dates4- يستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن المستقبل للتعبير عن مواعيد مححدة
My plane leaves at 5 o'clock tomorrow.
The exam starts at nine o'clock tomorrow.
ليشير للمستقبل  After , Before\ As soon as\ when \ If5- يستخدم المضارع البيسط بعد كلمات الربط الدالة على الزمن
After
As  soon as
When        
If
Before
After he finishes his school, he will travel abroad.
When the taxi arrives , they will go to the station.
My sister will graduate next year.then she will get married.          ( After)
After my sister graduates, she will get married.
Tense indicators الكلمات الدالة عليه
Usuallyعادة       alwaysدائما    oftenغالبا    sometimesأحيانا  every كل  (day- week-month..)
Everدوما  never أبدأ  rarely نادرا  scarcelyنادرا  frequently بشكل متكرر  generally بوجه عام
Occasionally من حين لأخر  once a week\ twice a month ….
ملحوظة
(Usually- always- often- sometimes-rarely- scarcely- occasionallyالكلمات الدالة على المضارع البسيط (
(Am-is-are) v-to- be تأتي  قبل الفعل الأساسي و بعد
He usually walks to school.
She never tells lies.
My sister often runs in the morning.
He is never lat.                          Isتأتي بعد never
Amany is always clever                         is   تأتي بعد   always
كلمات أخري مكن أن تأتي في بداية الجملة \ نهايتها
Every day\every week,  sometimes\ usually
He usually visits his uncle on Fridays.                                 Usually he visits his uncle on Fridays
She sometimes plays music on Monday.                          Sometimes she plays music on Monday
We go to school everyday.                                              Everyday we go to school
How often الكلمات الدالة على المضارع البسيط نسأل عنها ب
Form التكوين
Sub + inf المصدر  ( s-es)
(I they-we- you- pl) تتكون الجملة في المضارع البسيط من المصدر الفعل  مع  
(He- she-it singular noun)مع  s\ es وتضاف للمصدر  
I live in Cairo.
She enjoys reading science fiction stories.
My child goes to  school on foot everyday.
Plants need water to grow.
Passive form
Obj + am-is-are + pp + by + فاعل
She cleans the flat everyday.(is)
The flat is cleaned every day by her.
The farmer waters the plants one a week.          (are) ( watered)  
The plants are watered once a week by the farmer.
Negativeالنفي
الطريقة الأولي
توضع قبل الفعل مع تحويل الفعل للمصر doesn't  أو  don't 1- تنفي الجملة في زمن المضارع ابسيط بكلمة
Sub + don't\ doesn't + inf
( I- they- we – you- plural nounمع ( don't تستخدم
( He-she- it- singular noun(مع  doesn'tتستخدم
Mona plays tennis once a week.      (not)
Mona doesn't play tennis once a week.
They help their mother with the house work.      (not)
They don't help their mother with the house work.
عند النفي نحول الأتي
Some                                                     any
A lot of                                                 much\ many
Too\also\as wellأيضا                             either
So+فعل مساعد + فعال                               neither +فعل مساعد+ فاعل
Somebody                                          anybody
Someone                                             anyone
Something                                           anything
الطريقة الثانية للنفي
توضع قبل الفعل مع عدم تغير الفعل   neverتنفي الجملة باستخدام كلمة  
She always tells lies.
She never tells lies.
ملحوظة
نقدم الفعل المساعد على الفاعل   Never\ rarely\ scarcely اذا بدأنا الجمل ب
Never +فعل مساعد +فاعل + فعل
Rarely\scarcely +فعل مساعد  +فاعل +فعل  
He never eats breakfast at work.
Never does he eat work at school.
Hani rarely walks to school.
Rarely does Hani walk to school.
Passive
Sub+ doesn't\ doesn't + inf   + obj
Obj + isn't \ aren't + pp  + by +فاعل
Saimra doesn't watch Tv in the morning.            (isn't)
TV isn't watched by Samira in the morning.
Forming question تكوين السؤال
Yes, No question 1- سؤال معناه هل
على الفاعل مع تحويل الفعل للمصدر Do\ does يتم تكونه يتقديم الفعل المساعد
Do \ does + sub  + inf…?
Yes, I enjoy reading
Do you enjoy reading?
Yes, the sun rises in the morning
Does the sun rise in the morning?
No, they don't go to work on Friday.
Do they go to work on Friday?
Paasive المبني للمجهول
Do\ does + sub + inf  +  obj …?
Is\ are + obj + pp + by + فاعل?
Does Hala iron her clothes daily?          (are)
Are Hala's clothes ironed daily by her?
Does he use a computer in his work?      (Is)      
Is  a computer used in  his work?
( subjectالسؤال عن الفاعل ( ***
who *** اذا كان الفاعل اسم عاقل نسأل عنه ب  
What اذا كان الفاعل اسم غير عاقل نسأل عنه ب ***
أو صاشف  whoو ذلك بحذف الفاعل و نضع مكانه
How manyاذا كان الفاعل يبدأ برقم نسأل عن الرقم ب ***
Which اذا بدأ الفاعل بصفة نسأل عن الصفة بصفة نسأل عن الصفة ب***
The doctor examines the patients.
Who examine the patients?
The sun gives us light.
What  gives us light?
Eleven players form a football team.
How many players form a football team?
Clever boys always get high marks.
Which boys get high marks?
Passive
Who + inf ...+ obj?
By whom + is\are + obj + pp?
Who is\ are + obj + pp  +by?

Who tidies the office everyday?   (is)
By whom is the office tidied everyday?
Who is the office tidied everyday?
(verbالسؤال عن الفعل (
 في نفس زمن الجملةdo  (تحل محل الفعل) بحيث تكون   do  و الفاعل و   و الفعل المساعد  What, أي فعل نسأل عنه ب
What  - do\ does  +sub فاعل + do?
My sister watches TV in the evening.
What does your sister do in the evening?
The nurse helps the doctor.               (what)
What does the nurse do?
( objectالسؤال عن المفعول (
يتم تحديد الفعل المساعد
Question word do\ does Subjectفاعل Inf  المصدر ?
الكلمة التي نسأل عنها لا تتكرر في السؤال
I get up at six o'clock.                     ( what time)
What time do you get up?
We go to school to learn.                 (why)
Why do you go to school?
The armer works on the farm.          (where)
Where does the farmer work?
Passive
Question word do\ does Subjectفاعل Inf  المصدر Obj

Question word is\ are Obj مفعول Pp تصريف الثالث by  + فاعل?
Where do you keep your books?            (are)
Where are your books kept?
What does she buy at the market?
What's bought at the market?
Usually – habit – be used to
Sub  + usually + inf  ( s-es)
It's صفة ملكية  habit to + inf
صفة ملكية  habit + is to   + inf
Sub + is\ are + in the habit of  + v ing
Sub + am\is\ are + used to   + v ing
Amira usually  gets high mark.
Amira is used to getting high marks.
Amira's habit is to get high marks.
ملاحظات  
Occasionally = from time to time              As usual = usually           All the time= always
اذا وجد في الجملة   صفة اسم- عمر-جنسية- وظيفه- لون- ظرف مكان ( Am-is-are(  v- to- be يستخدم
He is a clever
They are doctors.
Is he at home now?
Are you ill?
Am I wrong , Samy?
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Past simple الماضي البسيط
Use الاستخدام
**it's used to expressتستخدم للتعبير عن  
1- an action that began and finished in the past.حدث بدأ و انتهي في الماضي        
I bough a new car last week.
2- a past habitعادة في الماضي
When I was young ,  I played football everyday.
Hani always walked to school when he was young.
ليشير إلى أحداث غير محتملة في الوقت الحاضر If يستخدم الماضي البسيط قاعدة
If + past simple                        sub + would + inf
If they played well, they would win the match.                   (they really don't play well)
(  After- as soon- as-when- the moment)يستخدم الماضي البسيط بعد كلمات الربط الدالة على الزمن ليشير للماضي
After\ as soon as when + past simple …………past simple
After I did my homework, I watched TV
When he arrived at the station, the train had left
Tense indicators :
Yesterday أمس  last الماضي  in the past في الماضي                agoمنذ  One day ذات يوم      once ذات مرة       once upon a timeكان ياما كان    the other dayمنذ يومين       From….to…من ..... إلى ..          in سنة في الماضي
the last time أخرة مرة     first أول مرة      last أخر مرة                 earlier this morning
Formالتكوين            
Sub + verb in the pastفعل في الماضي( التصريف الثاني)
Soha watched TV last night.
My grandfather studied many subjects at school.
The ancient Egyptians built the pyramids.
Passive المبني للمجهول
Obj مفعول + was\ were + pp by + فاعل
Omnia sent the letter yesterday.          (was)
The letter was sent yesterday by omnia.
The farmer watered the plants last Sunday.                (were)
The plants were watered by the farmer.
Used to اعتاد أن Used to- habit
Sub  + always \ usually + v in the past
Sub + was in the habit of + v ing
Sub 's habit was to + inf
It was صفة ملكية  + habit + to inf
Sub + used to + inf
When he was  young, he walked to school every day.
When he was young he used to walk to school.
Ola always helped  her mum when she was young.
Ola used to help her mum when she was young.
Samy's habit was to take  exercise in the morning.
Samy used to take exercise in the morning.
ملحوظة
Two days ago= the other day
Sub + vi in the past……..two days ago.          (the other)
Sub + v in the past ……the other day
Last = the last time
Sub + last + v in the past +

The last time sub + v  in the past + was

Negative النغي
توضع قبل الفعل مع تحويل الفعل للمصدر didn't بكلمة  Past simple تنغي الجملة في زمن
Sub+ didn't + inf
الطريقة الثانية للنفي
توضع قبل الفعل مع عدم تغير الفعل   neverتنفي الجملة باستخدام كلمة  
Sub + never + verb in the past
He never came late when he was a student.
She never took a taxi to her work.
Passive
Sub + didn't + inf  + obj
Obj + was\ were + pp by فاعل
Amira didn't sweep the floor.    ( wasn't )
The floor wasn't swept.
Forming question تكوين السؤال
Yes, No question 1- سؤال معناه هل
على الفاعل مع تحويل الفعل للمصدر Did يتم تكوينه بتقديم الفعل المساعد
Did + sub  + inf……?
مع اجراء التحويلات الأتية  
Some………. any              a lot of …………much\ many               never……..ever\ always
I Me My Mine Myself
You you Your yours Yourself
Yes, she won a gold medal.
Did she win a gold medal.
No, she didn't go to school yesterday.
Did she go to school yesterday?
ملحوظة
Passiveالمبني للمجهول  
Did sub + inf + obj?
Was\ were + obj + pp + by + فاعل?
Did the thief rob the flat?            (was)
Was the flat robbed by the thief?
(  subjectالسؤال عن الفاعل (***
The boy broke the window.
Who broke the window
The cat ate the meat on the plate.
What ate the meat on the plate?
Five children got full marks
How many children got full marks?
The bad man was put in prison.
Which man was put in prison?
Passive المبني للمجهول
***Who + v in the past + obj?
***By whom was\ were + obj + pp?
**Who was \were + objمفعول  + pp + by?
Who mended the bike yesterday?
By whom was the bike mended?
Who was the bike mended by?
(verbالسؤال عن الفعل (
What  - did  +sub فاعل + do?
I went to the zoo last Friday.          (what)
What did you do last Friday?
Amal wrote an e-mail yesterday   (what)
What did Amal do yesterday?
     ( objectالسؤال عن المفعول (
Question word Did   Subjectفاعل Inf  المصدر ?
الكلمة التي نسأل عنها لا تتكرر في السؤال
I bought a car last week.        (when)
When did you buy a car?
Mum went to the market by taxi.           (How
How did mum go to the market?
Passive
Question word did Subjectفاعل Inf  المصدر Obj
When did Samy paint the flat? (was)
How did they  solve their problems?
Question word Was\were Obj مفعول Pp تصريف الثالث by  + فاعل?
When was the flat painted by samy?
How were  their problems solved?
When did sub + inf ….?          ( How long)
How long ago did sub + inf …..?
How long is it since + sub + verb in the past?
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                                          Unreal past الماضي غير الحقيقي
يستخدم الماضي البسيط بعد بعض التعبيرات و لكنه لا يشير إلى زمن الماضي و لكنه إلى المضارع و يسمي ماضي عير حقيقي
و يستخدم الماضي عير الحقيقي بعد
في الحالة الثانية للتعبير عن شيء غير محتمل حدوثه في الوقتالحاضر If ***بعد قاعدة
If + past simple ( sub + v in the past)    …………… sub + would + inf
He isn't rich so he can't buy a car.( if)
If he were rich he would but a car.
Mona doesn't get up early so she can't catch the bus.
If Mona got up early, she would catch the bus           (من غير المحتمل أن نلحق مني بالقطار لأنها لا تستيقظ مبكر أبد)
اذا جاء بعدها جملة I'd rather بعد ***
I'd rather + sub + v in the past                ( now- at the moment…..)
I'd rather you bought this cat it's very modern.
I'd rather you did't use  mobile phones during the lesson.
عند التعبير عن التمني  في الوقت الحاضر***
I wish \  If only + sub + v in the past.
The weather is hot today
I wish the weather weren't hot  today
It's high time + sub + v  in the past  ***اذا وجد في الجملة                                                 you should stop smoking     . ( if )  ( rather) (it's high time)
If I were you, I'd stop smoking
It's high time you stopped smoking
I'd rather you stopped smoking.
اذا تبعها جملة   supposeبعد
Suppose + sub + v in the past
Suppose  you could sole this problem now
Suppose you got there late. What would you do?

Present continuous المضارع المستمر
Use الاستخدام
It's used to expressيستخدم للتعبير عن
1- an action that is happening nowحدث يحدث الأن          
He is working on his farm now.
Look ! he is playing football.
2-future plans خطط مستقبلية  an action that's an arranged for the future.
Mona is traveling to Luxor tomorrow.                    (Every thing is arranged.)
We are buying a car next week.                    (We have arranged every thing.)
Changing the habit عند تغير العادة مؤقتا
I have tea every morning but this morning I'm having coffee
Tense indicators
Now الأن look!انظر   listen !انصت   at the present timeفي الوقت الحاضر
At the momentفي هذه اللحظة   stillمازال                     keep quiet!  اهدأ           Keep silent
(But )today اليوم     she is busy. She is cooking                                                                .
في المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن  عادة سيئة  Always يمكن أستخدام كلمة
He is always making noise.                                        You are always asking for  money.
Formالتكوين  
Sub + am\ is\ are + v ing
Keep quite! Your dad is sleeping.
Huda is reading a story t the moment.
I walk to school very day but today I'm riding a bike.
I can't answer the phone. I'm having a shower.
ملحوظة هامة
أفعال الحواس\ الادراك و الملكية و العاطفة لا توضع في الأزمنة المستمرة
أفعال الحواس See- hear- tasteله مذاق  - smellله رائحة-يعطي رائحة feel يعطي ملمس  soundيبدو
NB the food tastes nice                        the flower smells wonderful
The knife feels sharp.
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He is tasting the foodهو يتذوق الطعام   she is smelling the flowerهي تشم الزهور
Seeيري    seeيفهم \يزور
I can't see without my glasses.
I'm seeing my doctor tomorrow.
Look يبدو   look ينظر
This picture looks nice.                        Mona looks tired today.
He is looking at the picture.
أفعال الادراك Know – realizeيدرك - recogniseيتعرف على  understand يفهم think يعتقد
Thinkيعتقد (لا توضع في الأزمنة المستمرة )         thinkيفكر ( توضع في الأزمنة المستمرة
I think he is clever.                     What do you think of him?
She is thinking about her future.
What are thinking about?
أفعال الملكية Have- own- possessيمتلك \لديه - belong toيخص \ينتمي
***He has a car nowهو لديه سيارة الأن  ( لا توضع في المضارع المستمر)  
***I have two brothers now
***He is having tea\ coffee. (هو يتناول الشاي\ القهوة)
أفعال العاطفة Like – hate- love- detestيمقت  wantيريد  would like - prefer
Still- yet
She still works in this school.                                   (حقيقة)
He is sill doing his homework.                                  (حدث مستمر الأن
Sub + am\is-are + still  + ving
Sub + haven't\ hasn't finished + ving + yet.
yet  و نضع  في نهاية الجملة Haven't\ hasn't finished و نضع مكانها  Still نحذف
Mona is still doing the homework.
Mona hasn't finished doing the homework yet.
Passive
Sub + am\is\ are + v ing + obj مفعول  
Obj +مفعول  am\is\are + being + pp + by+ فاعل
Negative النفي
am\is\are توضع بعد  notتنفي الجملة بكلمة
Sub + am\is\ are + not + v ing
Forming question تكوين السؤال
Yes, No question 1- سؤال معناه هل
Am\is\are + sub  + v ing…?
Yes, I'm playing football.
Are you playing football.
No, he isn't watching TV.
Is he watching TV?
Passive
Is \are + subفاعل + v ing  + objمفعول?
Is\ are + objمفعول + being + pp+ by + subفاعل ?
Is the mechanic mending the car? ( being)
Is the car being mended by the mechanic?
(verbالسؤال عن الفعل (
What   am\is\are   sub فاعل doing بقية الجملة ?
Ola and Abeer are watching a film( what)
What are Ola and Abeer doing?
( objectالسؤال عن المفعول (
Question word Am\is\are   Subjectفاعل V ing ?
الكلمة التي نسأل عنها لا تتكرر في السؤال

They are traveling to Paris .                   (where)
Where are they traveling?
I'm playing with my friend Ali.           (who)
Who are you playing with?
Arranged = am\ais\are+ v ing
Sub + has arranged to + inf
Sub + has made the arrangement to + ing  
Sub + am\is\are + v ing
Moan has arranged everything to travel to London tomorrow Mona is traveling to London tomorrow.
Everything is arranged for her marriage next month.             (getting)
His arrival is arranged to be  next Friday .He is arriving next Friday.

Past continuous الماضي المستمر
Use الاستخدام
It's used to expressيستخدم للتعبير عن  
1*an action that was happening at a certain time in the past.حدث كان مستمر في وقت محدد في الماضي
We were going to school at 8o'clock yesterday.
2***a continuous action that was interrupted by another action in the past.
حدث مستمر و قطعه حدث أخر في لماضي(حدث تم في منتصف حدث أخر)
Mona brunt her self while she was cooking lunch.
Tense indicators
Asبينما                whileبينما                              just asبينما                           whenعندما  
Yesterday morningصباح أمس                         yesterday afternoonبعد ظهر أمس
Yesterday eveningمساء أمس                          all day yesterdayطول اليوم أمس   all evening\ morning  yesterday
This time yesterday\ last weekفي مثل هذا الوقت أمس \ الأسبوع الماضي  
Form

Sub +

The children were sleeping all day yesterday.
Hala was dusting the flat yesterday afternoon
Ali was listening to music at 5 yesteday.
Passive
Objمفعول  +

Samira was washing the dishes yesterday morning .                 (being)
The dishes were being washed yesterday morning by Samira.
ملحوظة هامة
أفعال الحواس\ الادراك و الملكية و العاطفة لا توضع في الأزمنة المستمرة
Negative النفي
Was\ were توضع بعد  notتنفي الجملة بكلمة
Sub + was\ were + not + v ing
Some                                                     any
A lot of                                                 much+اسم غير معدود\ many+اسم جمع
Too\also\as wellأيضا                             eitherأيضا (في النفي)
So+فعل مساعد + فعال                               neither +فعل مساعد+ فاعل
Somebody                                          anybody
Someone                                             anyone
Something                                           anything
Examples :
Mona is buy some fruit.(not)
Mona is not buying any fruit.
Amira is carrying a lot of books       (not)
Amira isn't carrying many books.
Forming question تكوين السؤال
Yes, No question 1- سؤال معناه هل
Was \were+ sub  + inf + ing…?
Yes, Samia was cooking lunch.
Was soha cooking lunch?
No, I wasn't watching TV.
Were you watching TV?
ملحوظة
Passive
Was\ were  + subفاعل + v ing  + objمفعول?
Was\ Were  + objمفعول + being + pp+ by + subفاعل ?
Was the mechanic mending the car? ( being)
Was the car being mended by the mechanic?
Who was fixing the window?                        (being)
By whom was the window being fixed?
(verbالسؤال عن الفعل (
What   Was\ were     sub فاعل doing بقية الجملة ?
Ola and Abeer were  watching a film( what)
What were Ola and Abeer doing?
( objectالسؤال عن المفعول (
Question word Was\ were Subjectفاعل V ing+ بقية الجملة ?
الكلمة التي نسأل عنها لا تتكرر في السؤال
Ahmed was going to the market yesterday morning                 ( when)
When was Ahmed going to the market?
While قاعدة  - As= just as
***اذا كان الحدثان مستمران في نفس الوقت في الماضي

While Past continuousماضي مستمر
Sub + was\ were + v ing
Past continuousماضي مستمر
Sub + was\ were + v ing

Father was reading the newspaper. At the same time, Ali was watching TV  ( while )
While father was reading the paper, Ali was watching TV.
اذا كان جدث مستمر في الماضي  و قطعه  حدث أخر في الماضي( الحدث تم في منتصف الحدث)***
While Past continuous
Sub+ was\ were + ving
Past simple
Sub + v in the  past

While I was studying my lessons , the light went  out.النور انقطع بينما أنا كنت أذاكر( في منتصف المذاكرة)
The  telephone rang while he was sleeping
 V ing يتبعها  While اذا لم يوجد فاعل بعد ***
While V + ing Past simple\ past continuous
While running to school, he fell down
The thief broke into her flat while sleeping.
لاحظ هذه الجمل( الفاعل لم يستطع \لم يفعل شيء لأنه كان مشغول بشيء أخر)
I didn't hear the phone because I was sleeping.
She couldn't concentrate because she was listening to music
When قاعدة
Past continuous و الأخر ماضي مستمر  When تربط حدثين ي الماضي أحدهما ماضي بسيط و يأتي بعد when
When Past simpleماضي بسيط
Sub + v in the past
Past continuous
Sub + was\ were + v ing

When Mona phoned yesterday, I was washing the dishes.
بين الجملتين يتبعها الماضي البسيط  أولا  When اذا استخدمت
Past continuous
Sub + was\ were + v ing
When Past simpleماضي بسيط
Sub + v in the past

Hani was driving to Cairo when he had an accident.
While  مثل past continuousويتبعها ماضي مستمر   When ملحوظة : يمكن أن نستخدم في بعض الجمل
When he was going home , he found a wallet.
When he was driving  to Alex, the car broke down.
While + on + اسم ,………………….
While on holiday , he had many adventures.
When – on
\ noun\  vingيتبعها  On  و ( Sub + verbيتبعها جملة (when
اسم nounأو  V+ ingيتبعها Onعند
On نضع بدلا منها When نحذف
نحذف  الفاعل أو نحول الفاعل لصفة ملكية
اسم nounأو  Ving نحول الفعل إلى
I He She   They We You
My his Her Their Our Your
When he arrived in Paris, he phoned his family.                (On)
On his arrival in Paris, he phoned his family.
On arriving in Paris, he phoned his family.
While -During
( Sub + was\ were + v ing   بينما)  يتنبها جملة في الماضي المستمر ()While ***
While sub + was\ were + v ing ,……………………………..
Noun أثناء) يتبعها اسم  )during
During ( the meeting- the lesson- the match- her stay- his visit- the film- the flight- the voyage- our trip…….)
During the film, I fell aasleep. ( while)
While I was watching the film, I fell a sleep.
During her stay in London, she learned English.
While she was staying in London, she learned English.
While نكون جملة في الماضي المستمر بعد  During بدلا من  While عند استخدام
During + صفة ملكية +noun,……………..
While + sub + was\ were + v ing ,………………..
On the way to = while
On the way to + مكان ,…………………………
While sub + was\ were + going to+مكان

On the way to the school, I met my  friends.             (while)
While I was going to school, I met my friends.
While they were going to mansura , the car broke down           (On the way to..)
On their way to  Mansura, the car broke down.

العلم والايمان


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