مراجعات أحياء ترم أول صف أول ثانوى 2011

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. مراجعات أحياء ترم أول صف أول ثانوى 2011





حورية المتوسط


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مراجعات أحياء ترم أول صف أول ثانوى 2011 :: تعاليق

مُساهمة في 07/10/11, 08:20 am  على الوكيل

Net Revision
1 St Sec
For September and October
Biology
(A) Give Reasons For:-
1- The Stage Which The parasite Spends Inside the snail is the most important stage in the life cycle of Bilharziasis.
As the asexual reproduction occurs inside the snail , that results in the increasing of crecariae numbers ( which is the infective stage )

2- The importance of Studying biology to man.
Exploring living organisms that helps man to know more about life Secrets , how to get benefits from living organisms and how to protect himself from harmful living organisms.

3- The life cycle of bilharzia represents a good example of alternation of generations .
Because Bilharzias performs two types of reproduction, sexual reproduction in the main host (man) followed by asexual reproduction in the intermediate host (snail)

4- Presence of the (2) suckers in Bilharzia worms .
As they help the worm to stick itself to the wall of blood vessels

5- The male Bilharzia does not slide on travelling against blood stream .
Due to the presence of tiny warts on the body surface that help it to cling to the walls of the veins

6- The posterior sucker is larger than the anterior sucker in Bilharzia male worm .
As the male need proper attachment to the walls of B.V. because he is also embracing the female, So he needs more attachment

7-The alimentary canal in Bilharzia worm is simple and doesn't end with anus.
As the worm feeds on the human blood that contains digested food , so on wastes to be excreted through anus

8- Embracing of the male bilharzia worm to the female has a vital importance.
As the female completes it's sexual maturity inside it , also to facilitate and ensure mating

9- The ability of bilharzia eggs in penetrating the walls of the urinary bladder or rectum
Because eggs have spines that help in penetrating the B.V. , and the embryo inside the egg secretes digestive enzymes to dissolue the tissues

10- Bilharzia eggs hatch in fresh water and not in the patient's bladder .
Because egg's imbibe fresh water by ( osmosis) till the egg's burst and that doesn't occur in salty water

11- The importance of cilia to miracidium and the forked tail to cercaria
To help them in swimming searching for their hosts .( miracidium looking for snail ) (cercaria looking for human)

12- Infection does not occur if man swallow cercaria with water
As the acidity of gastric juice kills it

13- The patient of bilharziasis suffers from slow poisoning which limits his activity with headache and loss of appetite
Due to the accumulation of red blood cells residues

14- Bloody feaces come out of the patient infected with Schistosoma mansoni
Due to tearing of blood capillaries by the egg’s spines when it penetrates the walls of the rectum.

15- Pain during urination in patients infected with Schistosoma haematobium
Due to the discharge of eggs with urine

16- The most manifested of Bilharziasis appears when the female Bilharzia lays its eggs
Due to the tearing of blood capillaries that leads to the discharge of bloody urine or bloody feace.

17- The patient of bilharziasis suffers from weakness and severe anemia
18- The complication of bilharziasis in children leads to retardation in physical and mental growth
Because the worm feeds on the human blood containing digested foods . In addition the bleeding results from tearing the blood capillaries

19- Formation of urinary stones in the urinary bladder of Schistosoma haematobium patient’s
Due to the precipitation of saltes around the eggs inside the organs of the urinary system

20- Eradication of snails is considered the most successful method for eradicating bilharzia
As the miracidum dies after 30 hours if it doesn't find the proper snail

21- People should urinate or defecate in dry places if toilets are not available
Because if the person is infected with Bilharzia the released eggs with feaces or urine will not hatch into miracidum as there is no fresh water

22- Canal water must be kept for 48 hours before drinking if no other source of water is available
To ensure the death of cercaria if the water is contaminated as cercaria can penetrate the mouth tissue of man when drinking contaminated water, causing the disease ( in rate cases)

23- The cell theory is considered as one of basis of modern biology
As it states that :-
* Bodies of living organisms consist of one cell or more
All living cells are similar in their basic structure
All living cells perform a group of vital activities
All new cells are produced from pre- existing cells

24- The Amoeba dies after removing the nucleus from it
As the nucleus is considered the center of vital activities in the cell

(B) Write the scientific term :-
1- Science that study the living organisms their interaction together and with the environment , and the relation of this to man (biology)
2- A method used by scientists in their studies and researches which has several steps (scientific thinking )
3- A disease infects man , accompanied by bloody urine (Bilharziasis)
4- The process in which sexual and asexual reproduction occur in two different hosts during the like cycle of bilharzia worm (Alternation of generations )
5- They help the worm to stick to the B.V. (suckers)
6- A canal in the body of male bilharzia where the female is embeded in ( gynaecophoric canal )
7- A property which helps the bilharzia eggs to absorb water and burst (Osmosis)
8- A stage in the life cycle of bilharzia which has spindle shape and die after 30 hours if it doesn't find the proper host (Miracidium)
9- Complete mature larvae come out of mature Bilharzia eggs (Miracidium)
10- A globular snail or (helical snail)helps in spreading of bilharzia (Biomphalaria snail)
11- A discoid snail which the Miracidia parasitize on (Bulinus snail )
12- Cysts found in the body of Bilharzia snail where thousand of cercaria are produced (Sporocyst)
13- Stage of bilharzia comes from asexual reproduction (cercaria)
14- The infective stage in the life cycle of Bilharzia (cercaria)
15- Stage of bilharzia life cycle come from sexual reproduction (eggs)
16- The intermediate host of Sch. mansoni (Biomphalaria snail)
17- The intermediate host of Sch. haematobium (Bulinus snail)
18- Help the male Bilharzia worm to cling to the walls of veins (warts)
19-The building and functional unit in living organisms (the cell)
20- A group of cell activities that lead to growth and survival of the individual (Vegetative activities )
21- The center of vital activities in the cell ( the nucleus )
22- A double thin membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the constituents of the nucleus (the nuclear membrane )
23- A transparent jelly – like fluid that contains nucleic acid and protein fibrils (nucleoplasm)
24- A spherical body , suspended in the nucleoplasm (nucleolus)
25- It is formed of a mass of tiny coiled filaments in the from of network , which change into distinct chromosomes during cell division (chromatin reticulum )
26- It is the genetic material which carries the genetic information and has the ability to duplicate it self (DNA)
27-The point at which two chromatids are connected together ( the centromere)

C) Complete:-
1- Conclusion is the last step in the scientific thinking.
2- The scientist Theodore Bilharz is considered the discoverer of Bilharzia worm.
3- The researcher Bach named Bilharzia worm by this name.
4- The scientist sambon named the worm which has lateral spine eggs by sch mansoni.
5- The scientist leiber proved the presence of two kinds of Bilharzia worms in Egypt.
6- Dr.Mohamed Khalil confirmed the effectiveness of copper sulphate in the eradication of Bilharzia snails.
7- Bilharzia worm are flat unisexual worms.
8- The two suckers are equal in Bilharzia female.
9- Bilharzia worms have no anus.
10- Small Bilharzia worms live in hepatic portal vein.
11- The worms live in the H.P.V. for a period between 5 to 8 weeks.
12- Sexual organs of the female worm mafure inside gynaecophoric groove.
13- On examination of feaces sample for a patient infected with sch mansoni we can observe an eggs with lateral spines.
14- mature eggs hatch into miracidia .
15- When miracidium enters the snail it is transformed into sporocyst.
16- Cercareae produced from miracidia mature into male and female.
17- The infecticn is transmitted to man by cercareae.
18- The most important way in eradication of Bilharzia worms eradication of snails
19- Cercaria can survive for 48 hours
20- The scientist Leeuwenhoek made a microscope and he examined different animal parts.
21- The scientist Brown discovered the nucleus.
22-The increase in the number of living organisms due to Reproductive activities .
23- The protoplasm of the cell is divided into two parts which are cytoplasm and nucleus.
24- If the nucleus of pollen grain of pea plant contain 7 chromosomes , so the nucleus of peas somatic cell contains 14 chromosomes.
Choose :
All these openings found in Bilharzia worm except (mouth opening – genital opening – anus - excretory opening)
The male Bilharzia worm embraces the female for (laying eggs out side the gynaecophoric groove – ensure mating – all the above).
All of the following are successful means for eradicating Bilharzia except (treating patients – eradicating snails – drying the water surfaces – terminating the spread of parasite)

Mention the most important achievements of the following scientists in solving Bilharzia’s problem.


Scientist Achievement
Theodore Bilharz : -1 Is the first to discover Bilharzia worms in the portal vein.
-2 Described the anatomy of these worms and discovered two types of eggs of these worms
Hans Bach : -3 Is the one who named Bilharzia worms by this name after Bilharz
Harley : -4 Assumed that the Bilharzia eggs were the causative agent of the disease.
Cobbold : -5 Assumed that either fresh water snails or some aquatic crustaceans act as an intermediate host for the parasite.
Felkin : -6 He assumed that Bilharzia disease occurs due to drinking water containing the larvae of schistosoma haematobium.
Castellani : -7 He noticed the presence of eggs with lateral spines in the stool of patients in Uganda
Manson : -8 Discovered similar eggs in the feaces of patients and found that those eggs with lateral spines belong to some other kinds of Bilharzia

F- Compare Between :

1- Male and female Bilharzia worm.


Points of comparison Male Bilharzia Female Bilharzia
Body:
Length :
Breadth :
Suckers :

Warts :
Gynaecophoric groove: - Broad. short, flat
- 8-15 mm.
- 1 mm.
- The anterior is smaller
than the posterior.
- Cover the whole body.
- Exists. -9 Thin. Cylindrical
-10 12-20 mm
-11 0.2 mm
-12 Equal to each other
-13 The body is smooth
-14 Does not exist


2- Sch. haematobium and Sch. mansoni


Points of comparison Schistosoma haenrntobiun Schistosoma Mansoni
Size:
Warts :
Eggs :
Place of laying eggs :

Intermediate host :
Symptoms of the disease: - Bigger in size
- Less protruded
- with terminal spine.
- In the blood vessels of
urinary bladder walls.
- Bulinus snail
- Bloody urine
- Pain during urination.
-15 Smaller in size
-16 More protruded
-17 With lateral spine
-18 In the blood vessels of rectum.
-19 Biomphalaria snail.
-20 Blood faeces.
-21 Pain during defection


Egg of Schistosoina Haematobium
Egg of Schistosoina Mansoni

Has terminal spines
Present in the urine of
the patient:
Shape
Has lateral seine
Present in the faeces of
the patient:
Shape



3- Compare between Bulinus snail and Biomphalaria snail :


Bulinus snail Biomphalaria snail
Intermediate host of Schistosoma
Haematobium
Helical snail : Intermediate host of Schistosoma
Mansoni
Discoid snail :




4- Compare between Animal cell and plant cell :


Points of comparison Animal cell
Plant cell

Cell wall : Absent. Surround the cell, made of cellulose
Centriols : Present Absent except in some primitive
Lysosomes : Present in large number. Present, but few.

Plastids : Absent. May be chromoplasts chloroplasts or leucoplasts.

Vacuoles :
Small or missed. Large in size
G- Graw a labeled diagram for :


1- Alimentary canal of Bilharzia worms.










2- Cercaria :

3- Structure of plant cell






4- Structure of animal cell :

What happens in the following cases :

1- Repeated infections with Sch. haematobium
Appearance of malignant carcinogenic tumours in the Urinary bladder that may lead to death.

2- Addition of warm water to a sample of urine or feaces taken from a patient infected with Bilharzia.
The eggs hatch and miracidia will be released and thus can be seen under the microscope clearly.

3- The cell activities of the living organisms were only of the vegetative type .
No production of new individuals for survival of the race.

4- If the nucleus was removed from Amoeba by fine surgery.
It will stop dividing and dies after few days.

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مُساهمة في 18/10/11, 12:32 pm  المحجوب

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مُساهمة في 14/11/11, 09:34 am  حورية المتوسط

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مُساهمة في 05/01/12, 12:54 pm  Mr.Riad

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