شرح قواعد (جرامر) الثانى الثانوى كما لم تراها من فبل

صفحة 1 من اصل 3 1, 2, 3  الصفحة التالية

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

18032012

مُساهمة 

. شرح قواعد (جرامر) الثانى الثانوى كما لم تراها من فبل




Unit 1
1- Present Simple المضارع البسيط
تكوينه :- التصريف الأول للفعل .
مع الفاعل المفرد الغائب او( he ,she ,it) يضاف للفعل(s, es, ies)
يستخدم ليعبر عن حقيقة ثابتة او عادة متكررة

The earth moves round the sun.
الكلمات الدالة عليه:-
( Every day/week/month/ year …..)
always ,usually sometimes, often , rarely, scarcely ,seldomنادرا ever, never- frequently غالبا - no longer لم يعد occasionally من حين لأخر
لاحظ الاتى:- في الاختياري
He usually sleeps in the afternoon.
It is sometimes hot in.





مستقبل بسيطafter–before as soon as مضارع بسيط
when – till- until أو مضارع تام

I'll travel abroad after I finish my exams.

2- Past Simple الماضي البسيط
يعبر عن شىء حدث فى الماضى وانتهى ( التصريف الثانى للفعل)
I visited the wax museum last month.
Last (week/month/ year…)yesterday, one day ,once ,ago
in the past, in + سنة .
لاحظ استخدامه للتعبير عن عادة كانت تحدث في الماضي
When I was in Alex ,I swam in the sea everyday.


3-Present continuous المضارع المستمر
am , is , are + V + ing تكوينه :-
يستخدم ليعبر عن حدث يحدث الأن
He is studying English now.
أوشىء مرتب لحدوثه فى المستقبل
He is visiting Paris next Friday .
لاحظ :- أفعال الحواس و الإدراك والشعور لا توضع في المضارع المستمر بل توضع في المضارع البسيط مثل
(see -think - want-know understand-believe -hear (
الكلمات الدالة عليه :
Now, Look, Listen , at this moment, at the present

4-past continuous الماضى المستمر
Was / were + V + ing
عنما يكون بالجملة حدثان يكون الحدث الطويل ماضى مستمر والحدث القصير الذى يقطعه ماضي بسيط :
While I was mending the car , a friend phoned.

(While/Just as/as( بينما was/were +V+ing, ماضى بسيط
لاحظ :- اذا كان الفعلان متوازيان ولا يوجد تداخل يوضع الفعلان فى الماضي المستمر
While I was driving her lessons , I was listening to the news .
لاحظ : اذا لم يأتى بعد while فاعل يأتى بعدها ( ing )
Unit 1
Choose the correct answer:
I was so tired last night that I (fallen – falls – to fall – fell) asleep
At the moment we (are doing – do – have done - were doing) a history project at school.
It (does not often rain – not often rains – is not often raining – will not often rain) in Egypt.
I first (meet – have met – met – meeting) my best friend 2 years ago.
What (were you done – you were doing – do you do – were you doing) at 3 o'clock yesterday?
Find the mistakes
I want to be a doctor since I was ten.
When I was eight. I have seen a programme about a famous doctor on TV.
We were having a meeting at work this morning when suddenly all the lights were going out.
Unit 2 Unit 2

linking words الروابط
الروابط الاتية تأتى بعدها جملة كاملة ) فعل + فاعل )


Although – Though- Even though
Even if بالرغم من
but ولكن - however ومع ذلك
Because - as – since لان


- Although – Though- Even though / Even if) he was hungry, he didn't eat .
-He was hungry ( but / however)he didn't eat .
-He ate a big meal (because/ as / since ) he was hungry.
لاحظ :-
- However بالرغم من (صفة/ حال )+ فعل + فاعل )
- (صفة/ حال ) as بالرغم من + فعل + فاعل
- However wealthy he is , he isn't happy .
- Wealthy as he is , he isn't happy .
الروابط الاتية يأ تى بعدها ( V+ing / noun)
Despite / In spite of بالرغم من
Because of / due to / owing to بسبب
Besides, as well as, in addition to بالإضافة الى

Despite / In spite ( being hungry / his hunger) ,he didn't eat .
- He ate a big meal (because of/due to /owing to)
(being hungry / his hunger) .
-( Besides, as well as, in addition to ) going to the cinema,I visited an old friend.
- Mona , as well as I , is clever . لاحظ الفرق

So that /in order that لكى فاعل can/could+مصدر



I do more exercise (so that /in order that) I cant be fit .
To / in order to / so as to لكي ... مصدر
I do more exercise (in order to/ to / so as to) be fit .

.......................جملة مثبتة .............too أيضا
Ali likes football and I like it too .
.......................جملة منفية .............either أيضا
Ali doesn't like tennis and I don't either .

.......so + فعل مساعد / ناقص + فاعل ( و أنا أيضا )
Heba came late , so did Mona .
....neither +فعل مساعد / ناقص +فاعل ( ولا انا ايضا)
Ramy doesn't live here and neither do I.
Neither…nor ( الفعل يتبع أقرب فاعل ) لا .. ولا Neither Samy nor his friends are clever.


فاعل) ) not only فعل … but فاعل also …
He not only visited his aunt but he also went shopping .
Not only(فاعل+ فعل مساعد ) but فاعل also ……
Not only did he visit his aunt but he went shopping as well .
Choose the correct answer:
She plays the piano (as – as well – well – and) the violin.
Not only (he has been – has he been – he was – he had been) late three times. But also she has done no work
Besides (was – is – are – being) cold the place was damp.
He can’t write to his friend (because – because of – as – since) not knowing his address.
I had to take a taxi (as – because of – owing to – due to) It was raining heavily.
He won’t do any work for you (so – although – unless – in order to) you pay him.
I continued running (because – in order to – unless- although) I felt very tired.
She’s quite healthy (as – unless – even though – because) she never takes any exercise.
Find the mistakes
As well as she studied hard, she played tennis regularly.
If he reads the questions carefully, he answers them.
There were no accidents though the dangerous roads.
I like most school subjects because I don't like physics.
As soon as seeing the accident, I called the police.
Unit 3
past perfect الماضى التام
had + P.P تكوينه :-
لاحظ ان الحدث الاقدم يكون ماضى تام والحدث الذى وقع بعده ماضى :
After/ as soon as فاعل had +P.P, ماضى بسيط
had + p.p (before/ by the time قبل ) ماضى بسيط
after , before بدون فاعل ........ V+ing))
ماضى بسيط منفى (till/until حتى لغاية - الا لما) فاعل had + P.P
Having +P.Pبعد =After/ as soon as فاعل had +P.P
No sooner had فاعل + P.P ……thanماضى بسيط
Hardly had فاعل + P.P ……when ماضى بسيط
Scarcely had فاعل + P.P ……when ماضى بسيط
Choose the correct answer:
We (are looking – have looked – had looked – looking) for new furniture for the living room at present.
They (have just received – are just receiving – haven't just received – just to receive) a reply from the oil company.
She (exercise - exercises – exercising – have exercised) three times a week.
After he (had received – has received – receiving – receives) the fax, he telephoned us.
Nobody left the building until the meeting (had ended – has ended – ends – would end).
He (has – will have – has had - is having) a history lesson at the moment.
Find the mistakes
By the time my father was 18, he has been at work for two years.
My sister is really happy. She is just winning the first prize.
Alexandria was the last place I was spending a holiday.
In the past, people thought that the earth has been flat.
I will see a good film recently.
Unit 4
The future المستقبل

(1) will +متى نختار المصدر
حقيقة ، تنبؤ ، قرار سريع ، عرض عمل شيء، توقع شىء فى المستقبل
-I’ll be 16 next year. – Ok. I'll help you .
- I'm sure ,he will be a famous player
-I’ll clean the room for you .
-I expect he will be a famous singer.
وعند وجود كلمات مثل expect / I'm sure/ I think/probably

(2 )am / is / are + going to +المصدر

تستخدم للتعبير عن شىء على وشك الحدوث لوجود دليل على حدوثه
- Next vacation , I'm going to play football everyday .
- I think it’s going to rain. The sky looks dark.
- I'm going to buy a car . = I've decided to buy a car . = I've planned to buy a car .

(3) am / is / are + v + ing
يعبر المضارع المستمر عن شيء مخطط لحدوثه في المستقبل He is traveling tomorrow.
Choose the correct answer:
I (am flying – fly – going to fly – flies) to London tomorrow.
The train from Cairo (has arrived – will be arriving – arrives – was arriving) at 5.15 p.m. tomorrow morning.
I think I (buy – am buying – will buy – had been buying) this watch.
Tom (is seeing – saw – has seen – was going to see) the director in a few minutes.
I promise I (have bought – will buy – am going to buy – must buy) you a nice present.
Find the mistakes
She is gone to finish her work early today.
We are packing our luggage because we have gone to travel to Italy.
The shelf isn't well fixed. It's go falling.
4-She leaves when the meeting ends.

Unit 5
تستخدم A –An –The مع الأسماء المفرد النكرة التي تذكر لأول مرة أو وظائف أو جزء من متعدد . و لاحظ :
an hour a uniform a university a European
تستخدم the مع الأسماء الفريدة أو المكررة أو المحددة
* تستخدم قبل الصفات لتشير إلي جمع الصفة .
- The strong – the poor – the blind – the deaf.
* لا تستخدم " the " مع أسماء لا تعد : الكميات الوجبات والألعاب و المأكل والمشرب والمواد الخام والأاسماء المعنوية ...
*و لا تستخدم قبل الأماكن إذا كان الذهاب إليها هو نفس الغرض المنشأة لأجله . He went to bed early.
My father went to the school to meet the principal .
-Choose the correct answer:
After (a – an – the – no article) sun went down, (a – an – the – no article) moon came up.
(A – An – The – no article) policeman usually wears (a – an – the – no article) uniform.
(A – An – The – no article) intelligence is important for (a – an – the – no article) success.
(A – An – The – no article) hard work which John did was the reason for (a – an – the – no article) success that he enjoyed.
He said that (a – an – the – no article) subject he enjoyed most at school was (a – an – the – no article) Science.
Find the mistakes
Italy is an European country.
The continent to the east of Europe is the Asia.
The Aswan High Dam is on river Nile in Egypt.
Unit 6

طرف أول ---قصيرة المقطع صفة + er --- than طرف ثاني
طرف أول --- more / less -طويلة المقطع-- than طرف ثاني
طرف أول --- the صفة قصيرة est --- ------------
طرف أول the most / least + صفة طويلة
طرف أول as صفة فقط as طرف ثاني (تساوى)
طرف أول not as/so صفة فقط as طرف ثاني عدم تساوى) )


@Ex : Ali is the older of the two brothers .
2 : The more you study , the more you learn .
Choose the correct answer:
This is the (hard- harder – less hard- hardest) test I’ve ever taken.
He is not (so – more – less – lessen) reliable as his friend.
My flat is (more big – less big – bigger – the biggest) than yours.
You didn't do as (more – less – least – much) work as I did.
I don't read as (much – more – most – many) books as you do.
Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences then write them correctly:
The much food you eat, the fatter you become.
No student in our class is as cleverer as Amira.
She is more hard-working of all the students in this class.
Unit 7 –
عاقل Who / that الذى – التى
غير عاقل which / that الذى – التى
وقت – زمن when عندما
مكان where حيث اينما يحدث كذا = in which
اسم whose اسم (اللى ملكه )
قبلها عاقل whom + فاعل
by – for – with – about ( whom )
who/ which +be + P.P = P.P
Cars which are made in Japan are expensive = Cars made in ….
Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d
Mr. Gordon, (who – which – whose – whom) has just arrived in Egypt, is the chief buyer for a Chinese import company.
1970 was the year (when – which – where – whose) my I was born in.
The company, (which – where – what – whose) my father works, exports goods to Europe and Asia.
Port Said, (when – that – which – where) his business is located, is an hour's drive from our house.
The Sales Manager of the company, (who – which – whom – where) is 26 years old, studied economics at university.
The person (that – which – where – when) the company belongs to is an accountant.
Find the mistakes
My cousin, where is a research chemist, works in the food industry.
The university where I want to go to is near my uncle.
My uncle Ahmed, where is a businessman , lives in Cairo.
Unit 8

فاعل + Used to مصدر و انتهت عادة في الماضي
I used to sleep in the afternoon .
I didn't use to sleep in the afternoon .
Did you use to sleep in the afternoon ?
فاعل ( am / is /are) used to + V+ ing
شىء معتاد ولانزال نفعله الآن .
I'm used to sleeping at noon .
Choose the correct answer:
In those days, he didn't ( use to – uses to – is used to – doesn't use) enjoy fishing.
He (is used to - used to – is used for – is used for) go canoeing on the river on Sundays.
Did he (used to – use to – is used to – was used to) do anything else as well as writing?
When he was five years old, my brother (use – uses – used – used to) watch all the children's TV programmes.

Find the mistakes
When I was young, I am used to have a phobia of spiders, but now I don't.
I don't use to play computer games, but now I play them occasionally.
When I was in Alexandria, I am used to going swimming every day.
Unit 9
The present perfect المضارع التام
( Have / Has ) + p .p
يعبر عن شىء حدث فى الماضى وانتهى منذ فترة قصيرة جدا
شىء بداء فى الماضى واثره لايزال موجود
Wًords :- just / already/ever/never /yet / so far / up till now / lately / recently
( مؤخرا) ولكن تستخدم lately في النفي


Since ..o’clock /2003 , last ..,/then/ yesterday /May



For ..minutes /...hours /...day / …weeks / a long time /ages/ the last ……
مضارع تام since ماضي بسيط
He hasn't eaten since he returned home

It's + مدة + since فاعل + ماضي بسيط

It's five years since I met him

Present perfect con. المضارع التام المستمر

Have / Has +been +v +ing
حدث بدأ في ومازال مستمراً ومحتمل استمراره في المستقبل
It has been raining since this morning .
الفرق بين المضارع التام والمضارع التام المستمر المضارع التام الحدث انتهى والتام المستمر الحدث لم ينتهى بعد
Choose the correct answer:
We have been building a new house (since – for – ago – in) last month.
We have been waiting here (since – for – ago – while) two hours.
He has been playing football (since – for – while – when) 16 years.
I (work – have to work – have been working – will work) hard since the morning.
She (has to revise – has been revising – had revised – revises) for the test for three hours now.
She (passes – is passing – has just been passing – has just passed) the driving test.
Find the mistakes
My father has been travelling abroad six times in the last two months.
I'm sorry my clothes are dirty. I clean my garage.
I didn't see my cousin since the last school holiday.
Unit 10
Tag Question السؤال المذيل
1- ............... جملة مثبتة, سؤال منفى? اليس كذلك
اليس كذلك ? سؤال مثبت , ............... جملة منفية2-

let’s shall we ?
Let us Will you
I’m aren’t I ?
'd + مصدر Wouldn't
'd + P.P Hadn't
أمر مثبت Will you ?
’d rather wouldn't
’d better hadn’t ?
No one , No body
Never/ no longer فعل مثبت they ?
Someone/ somebody They
Choose the correct answer:
She's done a lot of good work, (isn't – doesn't – haven't – hasn't) she?
They dug the well,, (didn't – don't – hadn't – weren't) they?
She'd rather stay home, (hadn't – wouldn't – couldn't – won't) she?
Someone has watered the garden, (hasn't he – haven't we – don't they – haven't they)?
He hardly does any useful work, (does he – doesn't he – don't we – haven't we)?
Let's find somewhere else to stay, (will you – won't you – shall we – shan't we)?
Find the mistakes
She didn't know the way to the station, was she?
Nobody is here, isn't he?
A lot of money has to be collected, have it?
Unit 12
لاحظ الضمائر المنعكسة الاتية :
He …… himself /she…..herself/I….myself/ it….itself/you….yourself(ves)/ we…ourselves/they….themselves.
The writer signed the copy herself .
by (himself / herself ) yourself = on ( his / her/ your ) own
= alone – with no help
4-My – his- her- your – our –their
ضمائر ملكية يأتى بعدهم اسم
5-mine- his- hers- yours – ours –theirs
ضمائر ملكية لايأتى بعدهم اسم
6-me- him- her- you – us –them
ضمائر مفعول يأتي قبلها فعل أو حرف جر
Choose the correct answer:
Did you both hurt (yourself – yourselves – herself – themselves)?
The dog barked on seeing (it – its – itself – herself) in a mirror.
The house (themselves – itself – yourself- myself) is nice, but the garden is very small.
We wanted to buy the table, but (it's – it – itself – its) surface was damaged.
We got out of the water and dried (us – we – ourselves – themselves).
Find the mistakes
We designed our house by itself.
People live in houses to protect ourselves from the weather.
The job herself is good but the boss is unkind.
Unit 13
If ( present simple ) , ( present simple ) zero if حقائق علمية
If you heat ice , it melts . = If ice is heated , it melts مبنى للمجهول

1- If مضارع بسيط , will + مصدر
2- If ماضي بسيط , would + مصدر
3- If ماضي تام , would + have + P.P
4-( Had) يملك حالة ثانية would + مصدر
5-Had + p.p ....حالة ثالثة would have +P.P
6-I, he ,she ,it ........ were
7- If I were you ,I would ) مصدر advice )
8-Were +فاعل to + مصدر would + مصدر
= If فاعل + ماضي بسيط
9-If / as long as/ provided that/ In case / unless فعل + فاعل (جملة كاملة )
10- In case of في حالة ( noun / v + ing )
11-But forلولا / Without بدون noun/v+ing
12-If it weren’t for + noun , would + مصدر
13-If it hadn’t been for+N ,would have+P. P
Choose the correct answer:
(If – Unless – In case of – Without) you do your job well, you’ll be fired.
(If-had-Were-Should) I to have a car, I'd give you a lift.
(If – Unless – Without – Had) I didn't drink too much tea, I would sleep at night.
If he hadn't eaten too much sugar, he (wouldn't harm – won't harm – can't harm – wouldn't have harmed) his teeth.
If he (read – reads – had read – would read) the papers, he would find a lot of job advertisements.
Find the mistakes
1- If I found any money at school, I'll take it to one of the teachers.
2- If you haven't taken those photos, I wouldn't have remembered our holiday.
3- If he been a doctor, he would have helped the injured man on the train.
Unit 15

Passive المبنى للمجهول
اذا كان ماقبل النقط لا يستطيع القيام بالفعل (يعنى شىء غير عاقل مثلا ) تكون الجملة مبنى للمجهول ونختار
Verb to be + P.P
am - is-are – was-were –be – been - being + P.P


The car is being mended . ( now )
A new fence will be painted .

need to be +P.P
need + V+ing
The fan needs to be fixed .
The table needs polishing .

هناك تحويل خاص مع الأفعال الأتية
said / thought / believed / known / expected
It is/was + (p.p ( الأفعال السابقة that …..
فاعل الجملة الثاني ( be) to ….. مصدر ( مضارع )
فاعل الجملة الثاني ( be) to ….. have+ P. P ( ماضى )


Causative الجملة السببية


فاعل + v to have + المفعول + p.p
- I will have my car repaired.
Choose the correct answer:
The Pyramids (built – have been built – were built – would build) thousands of years ago.
It (believes – believed – has believed – is believed) that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago.
The tombs that (will cut – were cut – was cut – had cut) into the hills can still be seen.
The walls around St. Catherine's Monastery (were building – have built – has built – were built) to protect the treasures inside.
A lot of projects (are carrying – will carry – are being carried – must carry) out at present.
Find the mistakes :
Before roads were building across the desert, hardly any visitors came to Dakhla.
You may persuade to think again if you visit this oasis.
The job is doing at the moment.
Unit 16
Unit 16

Modal verbs الافعال الناقصة

must + المصدر It is necessary
mustn't + المصدر not allowed/ forbidden
have to / has to It is necessary
had to It was necessary









have to
need to
must
لاحظ : في المضارع النفي
don't / doesn't have to
needn't ر مصد
don't / doesn't need to

و لاحظ الفرق بين الجملتين :
You mustn't smoke here . -
- You needn't come if you don't like .
- Choose the correct answer:
I (mustn't - have to – should have – needn't) be at work at 8 a.m. or my boss will be furious.
You (should – have to – need to – needn't) buy a pen. I can lend you one.
My son (has to – needn't – needn't have – need) study mathematics at school next year so that he can join the faculty of engineering.
You (have – have to – need to – don't need to) do all this hard work alone. I can help you.
Tomorrow is a national holiday. I (will have to – need to – won't have to – should) get up early.
Find the mistakes :
1- You have to take any more pills. You are quite well now.
2- You must drink this liquid. It's poisonous.
3- You have to clean the kitchen today. I'll do it in a few hours.
Unit 18 –

must be مؤكد أن يكون ( مضارع )
can't be مؤكد ألا يكون ( مضارع )
must have P.P مؤكد أنه كان ( ماضى )
can't have P.P
couldn't have P.P مؤكد أنه لم يكن ( ماضى )
مؤكد أنه لم يكن ( ماضى )

am-is- are-was – were (able to ) …. مصدر
am-is- are-was – were (capable of) …. V+ing can + مصدر ( مضارع )
could + مصدر ( ماضى )
manage to ………. مصدر
succeed in ……… V+ ing
لاحظ الفرق بين الجملتين :
-When I was 6 years , I could ride a bike.
- I managed to carry the bag alone .
Choose the correct answer:
1- There is plenty of food in the world. We (can – won't – have – should have) feed everyone.
2- He (could have – may have – needn't have – won't have) gone to the cinema, but he preferred to watch a film on TV.
3- He worked on his bike for a long time. Finally, he (could – able – ability – managed) to mend it.
4- A small dog had somehow (managed to – succeeded in – was able – could) surviving the fire.
5- When I was younger I (could – can – was able – managed) stay up all night and not get tired.
Find the mistakes :
1. In the past, people can't find clean water, so there were a lot of diseases.
2. I don't see my neighbour any more. He must moved to a new house.
3. He can read or write. He is illiterate.



العلم والايمان


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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شرح قواعد (جرامر) الثانى الثانوى كما لم تراها من فبل :: تعاليق

مُساهمة في 19/03/12, 07:09 am  الثائر الحق

بارك الله لك وجزاك خيرا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 19/03/12, 09:27 am  Professor

جزاكم الله خيرا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 17/05/12, 10:26 pm  العلم والايمان

شكرا لكم ونتمنى الافا\دة

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 26/05/14, 01:16 am  ابومنعم

جزاك الله خيرا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

صفحة 1 من اصل 3 1, 2, 3  الصفحة التالية

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