القواعدجرامرانجليزى ثالث ثانوى 2012

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. القواعدجرامرانجليزى ثالث ثانوى 2012




مراجعة على أهم القواعد
روابط الإضافة
* and: واو العطف (تربط اسمين أو فعلين)
- They captured Gulliver and tied him to the ground.
* Besides / In addition to / As well as + v. + ing:بالاضافة الى
- Besides cooking for twenty people, she did the washing up.
- In addition to / As well as going to the market, we went to the zoo.
Ÿ اذا ربطت as well as جملتين يختلف فيهما الفاعل ، فان الفعل يتبع الفاعل الأول.
I as well as he have a car. الفاعل الأول , as well as الفاعل الثانى, الفعل يتبع الأول
* not only …………., but also ……….……:ليس فقط ... و لكن أيضا
* not only …… .….., but …….….. as well: ليس فقط ..... و لكن أيضا
? تأتى not only قبل الفعل الأساسى أو بعد الفعل المساعد فى الجملة الأولى.
- We not only went to the market but also we went to the zoo.
- We not only went to the garden, but we went to the zoo as well.
إذا بدأنا بـNot only تكون الجملة الأولى على شكل سؤال.
Not only did we go to the market, but also we went to the zoo.

الروابط الدالة على السبب
* Because / As / Since + جملة : لأن (يأتى قبلها جملة النتيجة و بعدها جملة السبب)
- He was late for school because he missed the bus.
- Since/As he had no money, he couldn’t buy a bicycle.

* Because of / Through + v. + ing /اسم / صفة + اسم: بسبب
* On account of
- We lost the match due to / through bad play.
- We didn’t play the match owing to bad weather.
- He went to the doctor because of being ill.
* Being + adj. صفة:
- Being ill, he went to the doctor.
* Therefore و لهذا السبب - so :و لذلك و يأتى قبلها جملة السبب و بعدها جملة النتيجة
- I got a good degree, therefore / so I didn’t have difficulty getting a job.

الروابط الدالة على التناقض
* Although / Though / Even though / Even if + بالرغم من :جملة
* However + صفة / ظرف + فاعل + :فعلبالرغم من
*صفة / ظرف + as + فاعل + فعل: بالرغم من
- Although he is young, he is strong.
- However young he is, he is strong - Young as he is, he is strong.
* Whatever + مفعول + فاعل + فعل / اسم + v. to be / اسم : بالرغم من
- Whatever mistakes he makes, I respect him.
- Whatever his mistakes (are), I respect him.

* but و لكن/ however و مع ذلك/ yet و مع ذلك :
- He is young, but / however / yet he is strong.
- He is young. However he is strong.
* In spite of / Despite + v. + ing / اسم/ صفة + :اسمبالرغم من
- Despite (In spite of) being ill, he passed the exam.
- Despite (In spite of) his illness, he passed the exam.

الروابط الدالة على الشرط
* Unless + (…….. جملة (فاعل + فعل مثبت : ما لم
* If +(…….. جملة (فاعل + فعل منفى : إذا
- He won’t go to sleep unless you tell him a story.
- He won’t go to sleep if you don’t tell him a story.

الروابط الدالة على الزمن
While بينما- While reading the newspaper, I fell asleep.
when عندما - When I got home, I did my homework.
as soon as بمجرد أن- As soon as I saw it, I wanted to buy it.
before: قيل- Before I went to bed, I phoned my friend.
الماضى التام
[
? يتكون الماضى التام منhad + p.p.
After + فاعل + ماضى تام + ماضى بسيط
After + v. + ing + ماضى بسيط
Having + pp + ماضى بسيط

- After he had read the novel, he watched TV.
- After reading the novel, he watched TV.
- Having read the novel, he watched TV.
As soon as + فاعل + ماضى تام + ماضى بسيط

- He parked his car as soon as he had found a place.
? يستخدم الماضى التام قبل أو بعدwhen و ذلك حسب ترتيب الأحداث.
- When he arrived, we had finished our dinner.
- When we had finished our dinner, he arrived.
ماضى بسيط منفى + till / until + past perfect ماضى تام

- He didn’t park his car until he had found a place.
- It wasn’t until he had found a place that he parked his car.
Before + فاعل + ماضى بسيط + ماضى تام
Before + v. + ing + ماضى تام
By the time + فاعل + ماضى بسيط + ماضى تام
- Before he watched TV, he had read the novel.
- Before watching TV, he had read the novel.
- By the time the police arrived, the thief had escaped.
? يستخدم الماضى التام مع by اذا تلاها ما يدل على الماضى.
- By last Friday, he had finished the report.
? يستخدم الماضى التام مع already/ just / never / yet إذا كانت الجملة فى الماضى.
- When we arrived at the cinema, the film had already started.
- He told me he had already done his homework.
- She had just got home when I phoned her.
فاعل + had + p.p. + no sooner + than + ماضى بسيط
فاعل + had + hardly / scarcely + p.p. + when + ماضى بسيط
- We had no sooner finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- We had hardly finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
? لاحظ استخدامno sooner/ hardly / scarcely بين had و التصريف الثالث(pp)
? إذا بدأت الجملة بــ no sooner/hardly/scarcely نضع الجملة الأولى فى صيغة استفهام.
No sooner + had + فاعل + p.p. + than + ماضى بسيط
Hardly / scarcely + had + فاعل + p.p.+ when + ماضى بسيط

- No sooner had we finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- Hardly had we finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
? لابد من استخدام الماضى التام إذا كان ذلك يؤثر على معنى الجملة.
- He thanked me for what I had done. -He found the bag, which he had lost.
- He was tired because he had worked for 14 hours.
Future Simple Tense زمن المستقبل البسيط
? يتكون المستقبل البسيط من will / shall + inf.
? يستخدم المستقبل البسيط مع الكلمات الآتية:
Next (year/..) / in the future / soon / in a year, month, week tomorrow / this time tomorrow
- I'll see him tomorrow. - We will not (won't) meet again until next week.
? لاحظ استخدام المستقبل البسيط غالبا مع:
I expect / I'm sure / I think / probably /I hope / I believe / I feel sure / Perhaps
- I expect he will win the first prize. - I don't think she will get the job.
Will + infinitive
? نستخدم will + infinitive :
Ÿ For predictions: للتنبؤ - I think you'll enjoy your holiday.
Ÿ For future facts: للحقائق المستقبلية - I'll be 16 next week.
Ÿ For quick decisions: للقرارات السريعة - That's the phone – I'll answer it.
Ÿ For offers: للعرض - I'll go shopping with you if you like.
Ÿ for requests: للطلب - Will you give me your new address?
Ÿ for arrangements: للترتيب لعمل شيء - I'll see you this evening.
Ÿ for threats: للتهديد - I'll resign if I don't get a pay rise.

Shall + infinitive
? نستخدم shall + infinitive :
Ÿ for suggestions: للاقتراح - Shall we go out for dinner tonight?
- Shall I meet you on Monday?
Ÿ for offers: للعرض - Shall I help you with your homework?
Going to + infinitive
? نستخدم going to + infinitive للتعبير عن الخطط و النوايا و القرارات قبل لحظة الحديث
- I'm going to make some coffee. Do you want some?
? نستخدم going to + infinitive التنبؤ بحدث فى المستقبل مع وجود دليل
- There are no clouds in the sky. It's going to be another sunny day.

Present Continuous زمن المضارع المستمر
? يستخدم المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن المستقبل بالنسبة للترتيبات و الخطط المسبقة
- He's travelling to Cairo tomorrow. He's got his tickets.
Present Simple زمن المضارع البسيط
? يستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن المستقبل و يرتبط ذلك بجداول المواعيد الخاصة بوسائل المواصلات و المسرح و السينما و المدرسة و غير ذلك: - The plane takes off at 10 p.m.
أدوات النكرة
? تستخدم a / an مع التعبيرات الدالة على العدد و الثمن و السرعة:
a couple of زوج من/ a kilo كيلو / an hour فى الساعة
?لا تستخدم a / an قبل أسماء الوجبات أما إذا سبقها صفة تأتي الأداةقبل الصفة:
- I usually have lunch at 2 p.m. - He gave us a good breakfast.
? نستخدم a / an للاشارة الى:
Ÿ شئ لأول مرة A bird can work in a team
Ÿ واحد من مجموعة He's a player in that football team.
Ÿ وظيفة شخص She is a civil engineer.
? نستخدم an قبل الاسم المفرد النكرة الذى يبدأ بحرف متحرك:
an apple – an egg – an icecream – an orange – an umbrella
? نستخدم a مع الكلمات التى تبدأ بـحرف u / h و لكن لها صوت ساكن:
A hospital – a uniform – a useful book – a university – a European country
?نستخدم an مع الكلمات التى تبدأ بـ u / h و لكن لها صوت متحرك:
An honest man – an underground station

The definite article أداة المعرفة
? نستخدم the :
Ÿ للاشارة الى شئ سبق الاشارة اليه:
- A bird was put in a cage with some food. The bird couldn't reach the food.
Ÿ للاشارة الى شئ هو الوحيد من نوعه أو اذا كنا نقصد الشئ كفكرة عامة
the sun / the moon / the Earth / The country / the countryside / the town / the sea / the sky / the Pyramids / the capital / the Cairo Tower / the state / the war.
Ÿ للاشارة الى اختراع أو اكتشاف أو نوع من حيوان ماthe computer / the lion
Ÿ مع أسماء البحار و المحيطات و الأنهار و السلاسل الجبلية و البحيرات و الصحارى و القنوات
- the Pacific Ocean - the Mediterranean Sea - the Nile - the Alps - the Sahara
Ÿ مع أسماء بعض الدول (عادة الدول المركبة)
- The United kingdom -The European Union - The United States of America - the Sudan


Ÿ مع السينما و المسرح و الراديو و الانترنت
the cinema / the theatre / the radio / the internet
Ÿ قبل صفات التفضيل و العبارات الدالة على المقارنة:
Ali is the tallest boy in class. - Dalia is the most intelligent girl in class.
Ÿ قبل أسماء الأدوات الموسيقية اذا جاءت مع أفعال مثل play / practise
the piano البيانو – the guitar الجيتار

? لا نستخدم أداة:
Ÿمع الأسماء الجمع عندما نعبر عن أفكار عامة مثل الناس و الطعام والوظائف والنباتات.
women / men / beans / scientists / trees / children
ولكن عندما نحدد أى ناس أو أشياء فإننا تستخدم ‘the’ :
- The people in my street are friendly.
Ÿ مع الاسماء التى لا تعد عندما تستخدم بمعنى عام مثل الطعام و الشراب و المواد الخام
meat اللحم- water الماء- oil الزيت / البترول - gold الذهب
Ÿ مع أسماء القارات و المدن الكبيرة و الصغيرة و معظم الدول و أسماء الأعلام و أسماء البحيرات المفردة و الجبال المفردة مثلAfrica – India – London – Assiut – Yousef- Lake Naser – Everest
Ÿ مع الأنشطة و الألعاب الرياضيةrunning / football
Ÿمع الأسماء المجردة أى المعنوية (عندما تستخدم بمعنى عام)
democracy الديموقراطية / love الحب/ fun المتعة / happiness السعادة/ work العمل
Ÿ مع المواد الدراسية و اللغات
- I love history. – My father can speak French as well as Arabic.
*قبل أسماء الوجباتbreakfast – lunch – dinner – supper
-I usually havebreakfast at 7 o’clock?
Ÿ قبل كلمةhome-work-bed خاصة مع الأفعال go-return-come-arrive.
-return home / arrive at work / go to bed
Ÿ قبلschool-prison-hospital-church-mosque عندما تستخدم فى الغرض الذى بنيت من أجله ، و نستخدمthe إذا تم الذهاب إلى هذه الأماكن للزيارة.
He went to prison. = He is a prisoner, a soldier or an officer.
He went to the prison. = He went there to visit someone.
Ÿ قبل اللقب المتبوع باسم علم- Professor Magdy Yacoub
Adjectives الصفات
? لاحظ أن الصفات المنتهية بـ ed تصف العاقل و الصفات المنتهية بـ ing تصف غير العاقل.
- He is frightened of his father. - He saw a frightening animal.
Comparative Adjective صفات المقارنة (بين اثنين)
? نضيف er للصفات القصيرة و نضع بعدها than.
cheap رخيص cheaper old كبير السن older
- I’m going to Alexandria by bus. It’s cheaper than going by train.
? نستخدم more …… than / less …… than مع الصفات الطويلة.
expensive غالى more / less expensive than
- I’ll go to Alexandria by plane. It’s more expensive than going by bus.
Superlative adjectives
? نضيف est للصفات القصيرة و يسبقها the و نضع the most/the least قبل الصفات الطويلة
[highعالى highest expensive غالى the most / least expensive
- Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
- This is the most / least expensive shirt in this shop.
ملاحظات:
? هناك صفات شاذة
good better than the best
bad worse than the worst
far farther(further) than the farthest(furthest)
much / many more than the most
little less than the least
- That was a really good film. In fact it’s the best I’ve ever seen.
- That was a very bad experience. In fact it was the worst experience of my life.
? نستخدم as………as عندما يتساوى الطرفان فى الصفة.
- ِAne is as tall as Peter. = They are the same height.
? نستخدم not as (so) …….as عندما لا يتساوى الطرفان فى الصفة.
-Hussein isn’t as old as Peter. = Peter is the older of the two.
لاحظ أن + (as) اسم + as = the same + nounصفة as + adjective
-Rania is the same age as Rasha. = Rania is as old as Rasha.
يمكن أن نحدد مقدار الصفة باستخدام a little / a bit / much / a lot / far (= a lot)
- Going by bus is a lot cheaper than going by plane.
Relative Clauses عبارات الوصل

* Who / that: يحل محل فاعل عاقل
The woman who / that was injured in the accident is in hospital.
* Whom / who / that:تحل محل مفعول عاقل
The boy whom / who / that I wanted to talk to was not at home.
* Which/ that:تحل محل فاعل غير عاقل أو مفعول غير عاقل
Hala works for a company which / that manufactures computers.
The shoes which / that Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
* Whose:و صفات الملكية وهى 'sتستخدم للملكية وتحل اسم متبوع بـ
my/his/her/its/our/you/their
We met a lady whose daughter has just got married.
* Where: which ….. حرف جر / حرف جر + which
(there / تحل محل ظرف مكان (جار و مجرور
- This is the school which I learned in. = This is the school where I learned.
* When: which ….. حرف جر / حرف جر + which
(there / تحل محل ظرف زمان (جار و مجرور
- June is the month when I go on holiday.
* ملاحظات:

1- يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل في الحالات الآنية (مع ضرورة حذف verb to be أيضا):
Ÿ إذا كان بعده مبنى للمجهول :
- The man who was injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
Ÿ إذا كان بعده جار و مجرور (حرف جر واسم):
- The boy who is in the library wants to borrow some books.
The boy in the library wants to borrow some books.
Ÿإذا كان بعده اسم أو صفة بعدها اسم:
- Dr Magdy Yacoub who is a famous heart surgeon was interviewed on TV.
- Dr Magdy Yacoub, a famous heart surgeon, was interviewed on TV.
Ÿ إذا كان بعده مبنى للمعلوم و نضيف للفعل v.+ ing :
- Students who arrived late missed the start of the experiment.
-Students arriving late missed the start of the experiment.


2- لاحظ أن that / who لا يسبقهما حرف جر بينما يمكن استخدام حرف جر قبل whom which /whose
- This is Ali that / who / whom I told you about.
- The train by which I came arrived late.
- The train that I came by arrived late.


3- لاحظ استخدام that بعد صفات التفضيل للإشارة إلي غير العاقل و استخدام that أو who الى العاقل:
- This is the most interesting story that I have ever read.
He was the best player that / who ever played football.


4- عادة تستخدم that بعد all / much / little
- That was all that he had said.


5- لاحظ ان what = the thing(s) that / everything that
Did you hear what they said?

[
Used to + inf. اعتاد على
فاعل عاقل + used to + مصدر: كان معتاد و لم يعد الآن
فاعل عاقل + didn't + use to + مصدر: النفى
Did + فاعل + use to + مصدر ? السؤال

فاعل عاقل + am / is / are + used to + v. + ing: يعتاد على
فاعل غير عاقل + am / is / are + used to + مصدر: يستخدم لـ
- He is used to getting up early.
- Wood is used to make furniture.
- He used to get up early when he was young.
The present perfect continuous المضارع التام المستمر
?يتكون المضارع التام المستمر من has / have + bee + v+ ing و يستخدم عادة مع:
since / ever since / for / all day
- They have been working all day. - It has been raining for three hours now.
?يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر للتعبير عن:
1- حدث مستمر حتي الوقت الحاضر :- I've been studying all day
2- حدث تم بانتظام بدأ في الماضي واستمر حتي الآن :
- I've been running a lot recently. - I've been learning Greek for the last few months.
- It has been raining heavily for the past three days.
3- تفسير لموقف في الحاضر :
- I've been running – that's why I'm so tired.
- I'm sorry about this mess. I've been painting my room.
?وغالبا ما تكون في الجملة كلمات تدل علي الاستمرار مثل still / yet / now / all day:
- He has been working there ever since he passed his exams.
- He has been working there for a long time / for 3 years.
?يستخدم هذا الزمن غالبا مع الأفعال التي تستغرق وقتا طويلا إلي حد ما مثل :
teach / learn / rain / cook / sleep / play / run / study / write / read / stay
- It has been raining for the past three hours.
?إذا ذكر عدد مرات حدوث الفعل يستخدم المضارع التام:
- He has written three letters.
?لاحظ أن هناك أفعال لا تستخدم في الأزمنة المستمرة حتى مع وجود كلمات تدل علي الاستمرار في الجملة مثل:know / own / be / love / hate / like
- I have known him for ten years now.
- He has been in the army for 5 years now.


العلم والايمان


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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القواعدجرامرانجليزى ثالث ثانوى 2012 :: تعاليق

مُساهمة في 13/03/12, 08:42 am  العلم والايمان

Question tagالسؤال المذيل
Ÿ السؤال المذيل عبارة عن سؤال قصير يضاف فى نهاية الجملة لزيادة التأكيد و معناه "أليس كذلك "

Ÿ يتكون السؤال المذيل من فعل مساعد أو فعل ناقص و ضمير فاعل.
Ÿ فى حالة عدم وجود فعل مساعد أو فعل ناقص نستخدم do / does / did حسب الزمن.
Ÿ إذا كانت الجملة مثبتة يكون السؤال المذيل منفى و العكس.
-It’s hot today, isn’t it? -They came by car, didn’t they?
-Magi speaks English well, doesn’t she? -It’s stopped raining, hasn’t it?
-We’d better work to a plan, hadn’t we? -We’d rather go to the club, wouldn’t we?

ملاحظات:
1- الكلمات الآتيةfew / little / never / seldom / hardly / rarely / no longer / neither تعبر عن النفى و لذلك يكون السؤال المذيل مثبت.
I will never speak to her again, will I? They rarely visit Japan, do they?
2- نستخدم they بدلا من someone/somebody/everyone/everybody/no one/ nobody
Nobody believes a liar, do they?
Everyone has come to the party, haven’t they?
3- نستخدم it بدلا من something / nothing / everything .
Everything is ready, isn’t it?
4- لاحظ الشواذ الآتية.
Let’s go to the club, shall we? -Let us stay here, will (won’t) you?-
-I am a dentist, aren’t I? -Open the door, will (can/could/would/won’t) you?
-Don’t stay up late, will you? -This / That is fantastic, isn’t it?

5- فى حالة وجود فعلين فى الجملة فان السؤال المذيل يكون تابع للجملة الثانية.
- I believe it’s going to rain, isn’t it?
6- فى حالة وجود أداة ربط فان السؤال المذيل يتبع الجملة التى لا تحتوى على أداة الربط.
- I’ll help you if you ask, won’t I?

-7- لاحظ الاختصارات الآتية:
Ÿ ’d better = had better Ÿ ’d rather = would rather
Ÿ ’d like = would like Ÿ ’d prefer = would prefer
Ÿ It’s + adj. / noun / v.+ ing = It is Ÿ It’s + p.p. = It has
Ÿ shan’t = shall not Ÿ won’t = will not
Past Perfect Continuous زمن الماضى التام المستمر
? يتكون الماضي التام المستمر من had been + v. + ing
- They had been waiting for an hour when the train arrived.
? يستخدم الماضى التام المستمر لوصف حدث استمر لفترة فى الماضى قبل وقوع حدث أخر و يستخدم عادة مع since / for / when / all day / all weekend
- We'd been waiting for three hours before our plane took off.
? يستخدم الماضى التام المستمر لتقديم سبب حدث فى الماضى.
- There were floods because it had been raining for three days.
? يأتي الماضى التام المستمر عادة مع أفعال يمكن أن تستغرق فترة طويلة مثل
wait / do / study / live / work / stay / play / watch / read / write / talk / run / walk / travel
- I was very tired when I arrived home. I had been working hard all day.
- He had been smoking for 30 years when he finally gave it up.
- They had been waiting for an hour before the train arrived.
- What had he been doing when the accident happened?
- There were floods because it had been raining for three days.
?إذا ذكرنا مرات حدوث الفعل نستخدم الماضي التام و ليس الماضي التام المستمر:
- When I met Ahmed, he had finished typing 3 reports.
Subject Pronouns ضمائر الفاعل
? و تأتى أول الجملة و هى I – you – he – she – it – we – they
- I play tennis every day. - He works in an oil company.
- She lives with her aunt.

Object Pronouns ضمائر المفعول
? و تستخدم بعد الفعل و بعد حروف الجر و هىme – you – him – her – it – us – them
- The teacher gave me a present. - Do you know Ali. I met him yesterday.
- This is Rania. I met her yesterday.

Possessive Adjectives صفات الملكية
? يأتى بعد صفات الملكية اسم و هى:
my – his – her – its – our – your – their
- This is my new camera. - This is his mobile. - I didn't see her cat.

Possessive Pronouns ضمائر الملكية
? لا يأتى بعد ضمائر الملكية اسم و هى
mine – yours – his – hers – ours – theirs
- This car belongs to me. It's mine. - This car belongs to Nagi. It's his.
- This car belongs to Magda. It's hers.
Reflexive pronouns الضمائر المنعكسة
? الضمائر المنعكسة هى:
Singular مفرد
myself
yourself
himself / herself / itself
Plural جمع
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

?لاحظ أن الضمير المنعكس للضمير one هو oneself
- One hopes that one’s children will be more successful than oneself.
?تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة عندما يكون الفاعل هو نفسه المفعول.
- Ali and Ahmed injured themselves when they fell off their bicycles.
-I don’t want you to pay for me. I’ll pay for myself.
- Sarah fell over, but she didn't hurt herself.
? تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة للتأكيد و تأتى بعد الفاعل أو بعد المفعول.
-Who mended your bike for you?’ ‘Nobody. I repaired it myself.
-I’m not going to do your homework. You’ll have to do it yourself.
-The president himself gave her the award.
- We didn't ask for help. We did all the work ourselves.
? يستخدم الضمير المنعكس بمعنى (بدون مساعدة من أحد) عندما يسبق بـ by
و يساوى own) + صفة ملكية (on +
I went to the cinema on my own. Do you go to school by yourself?
? لاحظ أن of my (his/her/its/our/your/their) own تدل على الملكية.
He has a car of his own

? لا تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة عادة بعد بعض الأفعال مثل:

shower / shave / dress / relax / wash
- I got up, showered, shaved and dressed.
- I showered and dressed in ten minutes.
? لا تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة بعد حروف الجر الخاصة بالموقع أو المكان أو الاتجاه
كما لا يستخدم مع حرف الجر with إذا جاء بمعنى (مع) بل نستخدم ضمائر المفعول
و هى .(me / him / her / it / us / you / them)
-I went out and took an umbrella with me. - She put the bag next to her.
-The car was coming fast towards him. - She looked about her.
? يمكن أن تستخدم الضمائر المنعكسة بعد حروف الجر after / for / on
-The children are old enough to look after themselves.
-Try to depend on yourself.

? لاحظ التعبيرات الآتية مع الضمائر التوكيدية.
- Enjoy yourself. استمتع بوقتك - Help yourself to……. اخدم نفسك بنفسك
- Behave yourself. تأدب / كن مهذبا - Make yourself at home. تصرف و كأنك فى بيتك
- Take care of yourself. اعتنى بنفسك - He made a name for himself. أصبح مشهورا -He isn’t feeling himself today. يشعر بالمرض اليوم
The Zero Conditional الحالة الصفرية

? نستخدم الحالة الصفرية لوصف أحداث تكون عادة حقيقية. present simple مضارع بسيط present simple مضارع بسيط

- If water is heated to 100° c, it boils. - If water freezes, it turns into ice.
- If I feel thirsty, I drink water. - If I feel tired, I go to bed.
The first conditional الحالة الأولى
present simpleمضارع بسيط will / shall / can /may + inf.

Ÿ تعبر الحالة الأولى عن أحداث محتملة فى المستقبل.
- If I earn some money, I’ll go abroad.
If we have enough time, we’ll visit Ahmed.
Ÿ كما تعبر الحالة الأولى عن احتمال حقيقى فى المضارع.
- If you’re hot, I’ll buy you a cool drink.
Ÿ يمكن أن يكون جواب الشرط أمر أو طلب.
- If you see Asmaa, give her a message for me, please.
The second conditional الحالة الثانية
past simple ماضى بسيط would/could/might/should +inf.

Ÿ تعبر الحالة الثانية عن حدث من غير المحتمل أن يحدث فى الحاضر أو المستقبل
- If I had a lot of money, I’d travel round the world.
- If I didn’t feel so tired, I’d come out with you.
Ÿ كما تعبر عن افتراض مخالف للواقع
- If I was/were rich, I’d buy my parents a house with a garden.
Ÿ لاحظ استخدام were مع المفرد للدلالة على الاستحالة
Ÿ تستخدم الحالة الثانية If I were you للنصيحة
- If I were you, I’d look for another job.
Ÿ يمكن استخدام were بدلا من if مع ملاحظة أن were هى فعل الجملة الأساسى
- Were I younger, I’d play football with you.
Ÿ إذا كان فعل الجملة فعل آخر غير were نستخدم were ثم الفاعل ثم to + inf.
- Were it to rain, the match would be postponed.
Ÿ يمكن أن نستخدم had بدلا من if - Had he enough time, he would go to the club.

The third conditional الحالة الثالثة
past perfect ماضى تام would/could/might/should +have +p.p.

Ÿ تعبر الحالة الثالثة عن مواقف مستحيلة الحدوث أو التغيير فى الماضى.
- If the sky had been clear yesterday, I would have seen the eclipse.
- If you hadn’t missed the bus, you wouldn’t have been late for the match.
Ÿ يمكن أن نستخدم had بدلا من if و يليها فاعل ثم تصريف ثالث
Had he played well, he would have won.
? ملاحظات:
Ÿ تنطبق حالات if الثلاثة على unless و يأتى بعدها جملة مثبتة
-Unless Peter improves, he will fail the exam.
-Unless he were lazy, he wouldn’t fail the exam.
-Unless he had worked hard, he wouldn’t have succeeded.
Ÿ لاحظ الفرق بين in case / in case of فى الاستخدام:
In case لربما + جملة
In case of فى حالة + v. + ing / noun اسم

- In case of having enough money, he will buy a car. -Take this money in case you need it.
Ÿ لاحظ التعبيرات التالية.
[for/ Without+ v. + ing/ noun would + inf. / would have +pp
weren’t for + v. + ing / noun would + inf.
hadn’t been for + v. + ing / noun would have + pp

- But for the Nile, Egypt would be a desert.
If it weren’t for the Nile, Egypt would be a desert.
- Without his hard work, he wouldn’t have succeeded.
If it hadn’t been for his hard work , he wouldn’t have succeeded.
المبنى للمجهول
? يتم تحويل أى جملة من مبنى للمعلوم الى مبنى للمجهول كما يلى:
مفعول + v. to be حسب الزمن + pp + by + فاعل

? فيما يلى تصريف v. to be فى الازمنة المختلفة:
Present simple مضارع بسيط : am / is / are
Past simple ماضى بسيط : was / were
Present continuous مضارع مستمر : am / is / are + being
Past continuous ماضى مستمر: was / were + being
Present perfect مضارع تام: has / have + been
Past perfect ماضى تام: had been
Modal فعل ناقص + مصدر : فعل ناقص + be

* Examples:
· Wood is used to make furniture.
· Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
· Many people are being helped by information on the internet.
· The house was being painted when I arrived.
· The gifts have been mailed.
· I wondered why I had been followed.
· You will be taken to the hotel.
· The exam wasn’t answered by Tom.
· Nobody has ever beaten me at chess. (I….) - I have never been beaten at chess.
ملاحظات:
? عندما تستخدم هذه الأفعال make/see/hear/watch فى المبنى للمجهول نضع to قبل المصدر.They were seen to go out.
? فى حالة الأفعال المتبوعة بـ (to + inf.) نستخدم (to be + p.p.) فى مبنى للمجهول.
-I want you to tell me the truth. (be) - I want to be told the truth.
? فى حالة الأفعال المتبوعة بـ (v.+ ing) نستخدم(being + p.p.) فى المبنى للمجهول.
-I hate people telling me lies. (being) -I hate being told lies


هناك تعبيرات فى المبنى للمجهول تبدأ بـ it أو فاعل الجملة الثانية
1- It + be (فى زمن فعل 1 )+ p.p.من فعل 1 ) ) + that + باقى الجملة
2- فاعل 2+ be ((فى زمن فعل 1 + p.p.((من فعل 1 + to +………………..

1- نستخدم المصدر بعد to إذا كان الفعل الثانى مضارع بسيط أو مستقبل
2- نستخدمhave + p.p. بعد toإذا كان الفعل الثانى ماضى

Examples:
pPeople say that he is a spy. (It / He)
It is said that he is a spy. He is said to be a spy.
pThe police think that he killed the woman. (It / He)
It is thought that he killed the woman.
He is thought to have killed the woman.
?
الضرورة تعنى أن الإنسان مجبر و ليس لديه اختيار.
Present مضارع
&
Futureمستقبل
must
has to / have to
needs to / need to
has got to / have got to
It’s necessary for ….. to
- I must see my doctor tomorrow.
- My son has to go to school next year.
- I need to get some from my bank.
- I’ve got to go to school tomorrow.
Past ماضى
had to
It was necessary for .. to
- He had to go to hospital yesterday.
- My grandfather had to work six days a week.
? ملاحظات:
Ÿ يمكن أن نستخدم will have to للتعبير عن الضرورة فى المستقبل.
- The flight is at six in the morning, so we’ll have to get up very early.
Ÿ تستخدم must + inf. للتعبير عن
1- نصيحة قوية لشخصstrong advice
- You must wash your hands before you eat.
2- دعوة حارةa warm invitation
- You must come and see us at the weekend.
3- نذكر أنفسنا بضرورة عمل شيءa strong reminder to ourselves
- We must buy souvenirs for our friends here.
Ÿتستخدم have to / have got to للتعبير عن إلزام مفروض علينا:
- I have to take the medicine regularly. - We've got to give in our homework tomorrow.

Lack of Necessity عدم وجود ضرورة
? و تعنى أن الانسان غير مجبر و لديه اختيار.
Present
مضارع
needn’t
don’t / doesn’t need to
don’t / doesn’t have to
haven’t / hasn’t got to
It’s not necessary for… to
- When you are on holiday, you don't need to go to bed early.
- When you are on holiday, you needn’t go to bed early.
- I don’t have to do any homework tonight.
- She doesn't have to work on Saturday.
Past ماضى
didn’t have to
didn’t need to
It wasn’t necessary for.. to
- I didn’t have to go to school yesterday. It was a holiday.
- I didn't have to do the shopping yesterday. My brother did it.
Future مستقبل
Won’t have to
Won’t need to
It won’t be necessary for..to
- I won't have to clean the room tomorrow. Mother will do it.
Prohibition المنع و التحريم
?وتعنى أن هناك قواعد و قوانين يجب اتباعها و المخالفة تعرضك للعقاب.
mustn’t = not allowed to + مصدر غير مسموح أن
not permitted to + مصدر غير مسموح أن
forbidden to + مصدر أن ممنوع
banned from + v. + ing ممنوع من
prohibited from + v. + ingممنوع من
- You mustn't smoke in hospitals.=You aren't allowed to smoke in hospitals.=You aren't permitted to smoke in hospitals.
= you are forbidden to smoke in hospitals.

1) Possibility الاحتمال
? للتعبير عن الاحتمال نستخدم can / could + inf.
Ÿ Some cars can use electricity.
Ÿ We could ban cars from cities.
Ÿ He can't be Egyptian – he doesn't speak Arabic.

2) Ability القدرة
? للتعبير عن القدرة فى الحاضر نستخدم
can + مصدر يستطيع = am / is / are + able to + مصدر يكون قادر على
= am / is / are + capable of + v. + ing = have / has the ability to + مصدر لديه القدرة على Ÿ I can see very well without glasses. =We have the ability to solve this problem.
? للتعبير عن قدرة عامة على عمل شئ فى الماضى نستخدم could / couldn’t + inf.
Ÿ I could swim at the age of six.
? للتعبير عن قدرة محددة فى الماضى على الرغم من وجود صعوبة نستخدم
was / were + able to + inf. = managed to + inf. = succeeded in + v. + ing.

3) Permission الاذن
? للتعبير عن شئ مسموح به أو غير مسموح به فى المضارع نستخدم
can / can’t + inf.
Ÿ In some countries, you can drive at the age of 17.
Ÿ In some cities, people can't use their cars every day.


? للتعبير عن شئ مسموح به أو غير مسموح به فى الماضى نستخدم
could / couldn’t + inf.
Ÿ In the past people could drive a car without passing a driving test.


? للتعبير عن أى شئ مسموح به فى المضارع و المستقبل نستخدم can / could + inf.
Ÿ You can / could borrow my camera tomorrow.


? يمكن أن نستخدم may للتعبير عن أى شئ مسموح به فى الحاضر أو المستقبل
Ÿ You may borrow my car tomorrow if you like.
Ÿ May I use your telephone, please?


? هناك طرق أخرى للتعبير عن الاذن و السماح مثل
-am / is / are / allowed to + inf.
-am / is / are / permitted to + inf.
-You're allowed to walk on that street.

-You're permitted to go in that part of the building.

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 13/03/12, 03:15 pm  الاستاذ وسام

vryyyyyyyyyyy gooooooooooooooooooooooooooood

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 14/03/12, 09:10 am  حورية المتوسط

جزاك الله خيرا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

مُساهمة في 27/12/12, 10:40 am  osama010024

شششششششششششششششششششششششششششكرررررررا

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

صفحة 1 من اصل 2 1, 2  الصفحة التالية

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة


 
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